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Győr
Győr
Győr
(Hungarian pronunciation: [ˈɟøːr] ( listen); German: Raab, Slovak: Ráb, names in other languages) is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia
Western Transdanubia
region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth-largest in Hungary, and one of the seven main regional centres of the country.Contents1 History 2 Climate 3 Main sights3.1 The reformed City4 Economy 5 Notable people 6 Sports 7 Twin towns — sister cities 8 References8.1 Notes9 External linksHistory[edit] The area along the Danube
Danube
River has been inhabited by varying cultures since ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE; the inhabitants were Celts
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Jesuits
The Society of Jesus
Society of Jesus
(SJ – from Latin: Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
which originated in sixteenth-century Spain. The members are called Jesuits.[2] The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in 112 nations on six continents. Jesuits
Jesuits
work in education (founding schools, colleges, universities, and seminaries), intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits
Jesuits
also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, sponsor direct social ministries, and promote ecumenical dialogue. Ignatius of Loyola, a Basque nobleman from the Pyrenees
Pyrenees
area of northern Spain, founded the society after discerning his spiritual vocation while recovering from a wound sustained in the Battle of Pamplona
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Episcopate
A bishop (English derivation[a][1][2][3] from the New Testament
New Testament
of the Christian Bible Greek ἐπίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic
Catholic
Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic
Old Catholic
and Independent Catholic churches
Independent Catholic churches
and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop
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Lombards
The Lombards
Lombards
or Longobards (Latin: Langobardi, Italian: Longobardi [loŋɡoˈbardi], Lombard: Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
from 568 to 774. The Lombard historian Paul the Deacon
Paul the Deacon
wrote in the Historia Langobardorum that the Lombards
Lombards
descended from a small tribe called the Winnili,[1] who dwelt in southern Scandinavia[2] (Scadanan) before migrating to seek new lands. In the 1st century AD, they formed part of the Suebi, in northwestern Germany. By the end of the 5th century, they had moved into the area roughly coinciding with modern Austria and Slovakia
Slovakia
north of the Danube
Danube
river, where they subdued the Heruls and later fought frequent wars with the Gepids
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Avars (Carpathians)
The Pannonian Avars
Pannonian Avars
(/ˈævɑːrz/; also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai[2] (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars[3] in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin[4][5][6][7][8] during the early Middle Ages.[9] The name Pannonian Avars
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Franks
The Franks
Franks
(Latin: Franci or Latin: gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire. Later the term is associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who eventually commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire
Loire
and Rhine, and imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, later being recognized by the Catholic church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire.[1][2][3][a] Although the Frankish name only appears in the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known under their own names to the Romans, both as allies providing soldiers, and as enemies
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Slavic Peoples
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Great Moravia
Great Moravia
Moravia
(Latin: Regnum Marahensium; Greek: Μεγάλη Μοραβία, Megale Moravia; Czech: Velká Morava; Slovak: Veľká Morava; Polish: Wielka Morawa), the Great Moravian Empire,[1] or simply Moravia,[2][3][4] was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to emerge in the area of Central Europe,[5] chiefly on what is now the territory of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland
Poland
(including Silesia), and Hungary. The only formation preceding it in these territories was Samo's Empire known from between 631 and 658 AD
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East Frankish
East Francia
Francia
(Latin: Francia
Francia
orientalis) or the Kingdom of the East Franks
Franks
(regnum Francorum orientalium) was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire. A successor state of Charlemagne's empire, it was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
until 911
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Magyars
Hungarians, also known as Magyars
Magyars
(Hungarian: magyarok), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary
Hungary
(Hungarian: Magyarország) and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. There are an estimated 13.1–14.7 million ethnic Hungarians
Hungarians
and their descendants worldwide, of whom 8.5–9.8 million live in today's Hungary
Hungary
(as of 2011).[25] About 2.2 million Hungarians
Hungarians
live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
before the 1918–1920 dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the Treaty of Trianon, and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Romania, Austria, Slovakia, Serbia
Serbia
and Ukraine
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First Mongol Invasion Of Hungary
Mongol victoryDevastation of Hungary; heavy destruction of Hungary's population and infrastructure, much loot taken. Mongol failure to subjugate the kingdom and capture Béla IV. Subsequent demands for submission by the Mongols in 1254, 1259, and 1264 are ignored leading to further raids, and eventually a second invasion.Belligerents Kingdom of HungaryVoivodeship of Transylvania Kingdom of Croatia Knights TemplarMinor belligerent: Duchy of Austria (until April 1241) Golden Horde (Mongol Empire) Cumans
Cumans
under KötenCommanders and leaders Béla IV of Hungary Colo
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Celts
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle Dnieper Bronze
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Czech Lands
The Czech lands
Czech lands
or the Bohemian lands[1][2][3] (Czech: České země) are the three historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. Together the three have formed the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
since 1 January 1993. In a historical context, Czech texts use the term to refer to any territory ruled by the Kings of Bohemia, i.e., the lands of the Bohemian Crown (země Koruny české) as established by Emperor Charles IV in the 14th century. This would include territories like the Lusatias (which in 1635 fell to Saxony) and the whole of Silesia, all ruled from Prague Castle
Prague Castle
at that time
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Battle Of Mohács
Ottoman Empire Crimean Khanate Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Croatia Crown of Bohemia  Holy Roman Empire Duchy of Bavaria  Papal States Kingdom of PolandCommanders and leaders Suleiman I Pargalı Ibrahim Pasha Malkoçoğlu Bali Bey Devlet I Giray Gazi Hüsrev Bey Behram Pasha Louis II of Hungary † Pál Tomori † György Zápolya † Stephen VII BáthoryStrength55,000–70,000 men[2][3][4] 200 guns 25,000–30,000 men[3][4] 80 guns (only 50 arrived on time)Casualties and losses~ 1,500[5] ~ 14,000 to 20,000+[6][7]v t eOttoman–Hungarian warsNicopolis (1396) Doboj (1415) Radkersburg (1417) Golubac (1428) Lower Danube
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Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I (Spanish: Fernando I) (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
from 1558, king of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Hungary
Hungary
from 1526, and king of Croatia
Croatia
from 1527 until his death.[1][2] Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Also, he often served as Charles' representative in Germany
Germany
and developed useful relationships with German princes. The key events during his reign were the contest with the Ottoman Empire, whose great advance into Central Europe began in the 1520s, and the Protestant Reformation, which resulted in several wars of religion. Ferdinand was able to defend his realm and make it somewhat more cohesive, but he could not conquer the major part of Hungary
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János Szapolyai
John Zápolya, or John Szapolyai
Szapolyai
(Croatian: Ivan Zapolja, Hungarian: Szapolyai
Szapolyai
János or Zápolya
Zápolya
János, Romanian: Ioan Zápolya, Slovak: Ján Zápoľský, Serbian: Jovan Zapolja/Јован Запоља; 1490 or 1491 – 22 July 1540), was King of Hungary
King of Hungary
(as John I) from 1526 to 1540
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