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György Ligeti
György Sándor Ligeti (/ˈlɪɡəti/; Hungarian: Ligeti György Sándor, pronounced [ˈliɡɛti ˈɟørɟ ˈʃaːndor]; 28 May 1923 – 12 June 2006) was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music. He has been described as "one of the most important avant-garde composers in the latter half of the twentieth century" and "one of the most innovative and influential among progressive figures of his time".[1] Born in Transylvania, Romania, he lived in Hungary before emigrating to Austria in 1956, and became an Austrian citizen in 1968. In 1973 he became professor of composition at the Hamburg Hochschule für Musik und Theater until he retired in 1989. He died in Vienna in 2006. Restricted by the authorities of Communist Hungary, only when he reached the west in 1956 could he fully realise his passion for avant-garde music and develop new compositional techniques
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Second Vienna Award
The Second Vienna
Vienna
Award was the second of two territorial disputes arbitrated by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and Fascist Italy
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Counterpoint
In music, counterpoint is the relationship between voices that are harmonically interdependent (polyphony) yet independent in rhythm and contour.[1] It has been most commonly identified in the European classical tradition, strongly developing during the Renaissance and in much of the common practice period, especially in the Baroque
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World War II
Allied victoryCollapse of Nazi Germany Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires Dissolution of the League of Nations Creation of the United Nations Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers Beginning of the Cold War
Cold War
(more...)ParticipantsAllied Powers Axis PowersCommanders and leadersMain Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Auschwitz Concentration Camp
The Auschwitz
Auschwitz
concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in occupied Poland during World War II. It consisted of Auschwitz
Auschwitz
I (the original concentration camp), Auschwitz
Auschwitz
II–Birkenau (a combination concentration/extermination camp), Auschwitz
Auschwitz
III– Monowitz
Monowitz
(a labor camp to staff an IG Farben
IG Farben
factory), and 45 satellite camps. Auschwitz
Auschwitz
I was first constructed to hold Polish political prisoners, who began to arrive in May 1940. The first extermination of prisoners took place in September 1941
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Mauthausen-Gusen Concentration Camp
Coordinates: 48°15′25″N 14°30′04″E / 48.25694°N 14.50111°E / 48.25694; 14.50111Mauthausen–GusenConcentration campGate to the garage yard in the Mauthausen
Mauthausen
concentration campLocation of Mauthausen–Gusen in AustriaOther names Mauthausen, GusenLocation in and around Mauthausen
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Hungary In World War II
During World War II, the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
was a member of the Axis powers.[1] In the 1930s, the Kingdom of Hungary
Hungary
relied on increased trade with Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
to pull itself out of the Great Depression. Hungarian politics and foreign policy had become more stridently nationalistic by 1938, and Hungary
Hungary
adopted an irredentist policy similar to Germany's, attempting to incorporate ethnic Hungarian areas in neighboring countries into Hungary. Hungary benefited territorially from its relationship with the Axis. Settlements were negotiated regarding territorial disputes with the Czechoslovak Republic, the Slovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Romania. In 1940, under pressure from Germany, Hungary
Hungary
joined the Axis powers
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Budapest
Budapest
Budapest
(Hungarian: [ˈbudɒpɛʃt] ( listen))[11] is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, and one of the largest cities in the European Union.[12][13][14] With an estimated 2016 population of 1,759,407 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres (203 square miles), Budapest
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Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
Ethnomusicology
is the study of music from the cultural and social aspects of the people who make it. It encompasses distinct theoretical and methodical approaches that emphasize cultural, social, material, cognitive, biological, and other dimensions or contexts of musical behavior, instead of only its isolated sound component. The term ethnomusicology is said to have been first coined by Jaap Kunst from the Greek words ἔθνος (ethnos, "nation") and μουσική (mousike, "music"), is often defined as the anthropology or ethnography of music, or as musical anthropology.[1] During its early development from comparative musicology in the 1950s, ethnomusicology was primarily oriented toward non-Western music, but for several decades has included the study of all and any musics of the world (including Western art music and popular music) from anthropological, sociological and intercultural perspectives
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Gheorghe Dima Music Academy
Gheorghe Dima Music Academy is an educational institution in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Founded in 1919, nowadays it has various sections, including composition, conducting, musicology, musical pedagogy, canto, coregraphic pedagogy, and opera
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Personal Name
A personal name or full name is the set of names by which an individual is known and that can be recited as a word-group, with the understanding that, taken together, they all relate to that one individual. In many cultures, the term is synonymous with the birth name or legal name of the individual. The academic study of personal names is called anthroponymy. In Western culture, nearly all individuals possess at least one given name (also known as a first name, forename, or Christian name), together with a surname (also known as a last name or family name)—respectively, the Thomas and Jefferson in Thomas Jefferson—the latter to indicate that the individual belongs to a family, a tribe, or a clan
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Northern Transylvania
Northern Transylvania
Transylvania
(Romanian: Transilvania de Nord, Hungarian: Észak-Erdély) was the region of the Kingdom of Romania
Kingdom of Romania
that during World War II, as a consequence of the territorial agreement known as the Second Vienna Award, became part of the Kingdom of Hungary. With an area of 43,104 km2 (16,643 sq mi),[4] the population was largely composed of both ethnic Romanians
Romanians
and Hungarians. After World War II, the Paris Peace Treaties returned Northern Transylvania to Romania.Contents1 History 2 Description 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Main article: History of Transylvania Romania
Romania
in 1940 with Northern Transylvania
Transylvania
highlighted in yellowRomania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940The region has a varied history
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Cluj-Napoca
Coordinates: 46°46′N 23°35′E / 46.767°N 23.583°E / 46.767; 23.583Cluj-NapocaCityFrom left: St
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Ágnes Heller
Ágnes Heller
Ágnes Heller
(born 12 May 1929) is a Hungarian philosopher.Contents1 Early life and political development 2 Scientific work2.1 Early career in Hungary 2.2 From the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 to the Prague Spring
Prague Spring
of 1968 2.3 Career in Hungary after the Prague Spring 2.4 Career abroad3 Awards, honors (selection) 4 Works4.1 Articles 4.2 Books5 References 6 External linksEarly life and political development[edit] Ágnes Heller
Ágnes Heller
was raised in a middle-class[citation needed] Jewish family. During World War II
World War II
her father used his legal training and knowledge of German to help people get together the necessary paperwork to emigrate from Nazi
Nazi
Europe. In 1944, Heller’s father was deported to the Auschwitz concentration camp
Auschwitz concentration camp
where he died before the war ended
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Hungarian Folk Music
Print mediaMetal HammerMusic televisionMusic Television VIVANationalistic and patriotic songsNational anthem "Himnusz"Other Szózat Székely Himnuszv t e Hungarian folk music
Hungarian folk music
(Magyar Népzene) includes a broad array of Central European styles, including the recruitment dance verbunkos, the csárdás and nóta. The name Népzene is also used for Hungarian folk music
Hungarian folk music
as an umbrella designation of a number of related styles of traditional folk music from Hungary and Hungarian minorities living in modern-day Austria, the, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, central Romania
Romania
(Transylvania) (Székely), Moldova (Csángó), and Serbia. The obscure origins of Hungarian folk music
Hungarian folk music
formed among the peasant population in the early nineteenth century with roots dating even further back
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Harmony
In music, harmony considers the process by which the composition of individual sounds, or superpositions of sounds, is analysed by hearing. Usually, this means simultaneously occurring frequencies, pitches (tones, notes), or chords.[1] The study of harmony involves chords and their construction and chord progressions and the principles of connection that govern them.[2] Harmony
Harmony
is often said to refer to the "vertical" aspect of music, as distinguished from melodic line, or the "horizontal" aspect.[3] Counterpoint, which refers to the relationship between melodic lines, and polyphony, which refers to the simultaneous sounding of separate independent voices, are thus sometimes distinguished from harmony. In popular and jazz harmony, chords are named by their root plus various terms and characters indicating their qualities. In many types of music, notably baroque, romantic, modern, and jazz, chords are often augmented with "tensions"
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