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Guru
Guru
Guru
(Sanskrit: गुरु
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Proto-Indo-European Root
The roots of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language
Proto-Indo-European language
(PIE) are basic parts of words that carry a lexical meaning, so-called morphemes. PIE roots usually have verbal meaning like "eat" or "run". Roots never occur alone in the language
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Western World
The Western world, or simply the West (from Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
root wes-; Ancient Greek: Ἓσπερος /ˈhɛspərʊs/, Hesperos,[1] "towards evening") refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe. There are many accepted definitions, all closely interrelated.[2] The Western world
Western world
is also known as the Occident (from Latin
Latin
word occidens, "sunset, West"). The East and the Orient
Orient
are terms used as contraries. Ancient Greece[a][b] and ancient Rome[c] are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization, the former due to its impact on Western philosophy, democracy, science, art, and the ancient Roman culture, the latter due to its influence in governance, republicanism, law, architecture and warfare
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Proto-Indo-European Language
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus
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Cognate
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.[1] For example, the English word dish and the German word Tisch ("table"), are cognates because they both come from Latin discus, which relates to their flat surfaces. Cognates may have evolved similar, different or even opposite meanings. But, in most cases, there are some similar letters in the word. Some words sound similar, but don't come from the same root. These are called false cognates and are described in more detail below. In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin
Latin
noun cognatus, which means "blood relative".[2]Contents1 Characteristics 2 Across languages 3 Within the same language 4 False cognates 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksCharacteristics[edit] Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately
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International Alphabet Of Sanskrit Transliteration
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Transliteration
Transliteration
(I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that emerged during the nineteenth century from suggestions by Charles Trevelyan, William Jones, Monier Monier-Williams and other scholars, and formalised by the Transliteration
Transliteration
Committee of the Geneva Oriental Congress, in September 1894.[1] IAST makes it possible for the reader to read the Indic text unambiguously, exactly as if it were in the original Indic script
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Hippie
A hippie (sometimes spelled hippy)[1][2] is a member of a counterculture, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village
Greenwich Village
and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury
Haight-Ashbury
district. The term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco by Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle. The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had become part of African American jive slang and meant "sophisticated; currently fashionable; fully up-to-date".[3][4][5] The Beats adopted the term hip, and early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation
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Reender Kranenborg
Reender Kranenborg (born 1942) was an editor of the magazine Religious Movement in the Netherlands published by the institute of religious studies of the Free University in Amsterdam.[1] He received his Phd. in the theological faculty about the subject of Self-realization. He stated in the dissertation that he had attempted to research the subject following the norms of religious studies, not a theological one.[2] He had, until his retirement, a seat at the Comitato Scientifico (scientific committee) of the CESNUR.[3] Selected bibliography[edit]EnglishThe Presentation of the Essenes in Western Esotericism. Journal of Contemporary Religion, 13 (2): 245- 256. (1998). New Religions in a Postmodern World (2003) Reender Kranenborg and Mikael Rothstein (Eds.) Aarhus University Press ISBN 87-7288-748-6 Field Notes: Efraim: A New Apocalyptic Movement in the Netherlands in Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions. 2004, Vol. 7, No
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Folk Etymology
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.[1][2][3] The form or the meaning of an archaic, foreign, or otherwise unfamiliar word is reanalyzed as resembling more familiar words or morphemes. Rebracketing is a form of folk etymology in which a word is broken down or "bracketed" into a new set of supposed elements
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Master (other)
Disambiguation usually refers to word-sense disambiguation, the process of identifying which meaning of a word is used in context. Disambiguation may also refer to:Sentence boundary disambiguation, the problem in natural language processing of deciding where sentences begin and end Syntactic disambiguation, the problem of resolving syntactic ambiguity Memory disambiguation, a set of microprocessor execution techniquesMusic[edit]Ø (Disambiguation), a 2010 album by Underoath Disambiguation (Pandelis Karayorgis album), a 2002 album by Pandelis Karayorgis and Mat ManeriSee also[edit]Ambiguity, an attribute of any concept, idea, statement or claim whose meaning, intention or interpretation cannot be definitively resolvedThis disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Disambiguation. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Guide
A guide is a person who leads travelers or tourists through unknown or unfamiliar locations. The term can also be applied to a person who leads others to more abstract goals such as knowledge or wisdom.Contents1 Travel
Travel
and recreation1.1 Tour guide 1.2 Mountain guide 1.3 Wilderness
Wilderness
guide 1.4 Hunting
Hunting
guide 1.5 Safari
Safari
guide 1.6 Fishing
Fishing
guide2 Military guides and Guides regiments 3 Metaphysics3.1 Trip sitter 3.2 Guided meditation 3.3 In Islam4 See also 5 References Travel
Travel
and recreation[edit] Explorers in the past venturing into territory unknown by their own people invariably hired guides
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Expert
An expert is someone who has a prolonged or intense experience through practice and education in a particular field. Informally, an expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by peers or the public in a specific well-distinguished domain. An expert, more generally, is a person with extensive knowledge or ability based on research, experience, or occupation and in a particular area of study. Experts are called in for advice on their respective subject, but they do not always agree on the particulars of a field of study. An expert can be believed, by virtue of credential, training, education, profession, publication or experience, to have special knowledge of a subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon the individual's opinion. Historically, an expert was referred to as a sage (Sophos)
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Vedas
DivisionsSamhita Brahmana Aranyaka UpanishadsUpanishads Rig vedicAitareya KaushitakiSama vedicChandogya KenaYajur vedicBrihadaranyaka Isha Taittiriya Katha Shvetashvatara MaitriAtharva vedicMundaka Mandukya PrashnaOther scripturesBhagavad Gita AgamasRelated Hindu
Hindu
textsVedangasShiksha Chandas Vyakarana Nirukta Kalpa JyotishaPuranas Brahma
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Jain Monasticism
Jain monasticism
Jain monasticism
refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community. The term nirgrantha ("bondless") was used for Jain monks in the past. The monastic practices of two major sects ( Digambara
Digambara
and Śvētāmbara) vary greatly, but the major principles of both are identical.Contents1 Terminology 2 History 3 Digambara
Digambara
monks 4 Initiation 5 Rules of conduct 6 Ranks 7 Attire and possessions 8 Chaturmas 9 Mahavira's asceticism 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksTerminology[edit] Digambaras use the word muṇi for male monastics and aryika for female monastics. Digambara
Digambara
monks are also called nirgrantha (without bonds).[1] Buddhist texts refer to Mahavira, the last Tirthankara, as Nigaṇṭha Jñātaputta
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Aasaan
Aasaan or Asan is a Tamil word meaning teacher or guide.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Traditions 3 Notable persons 4 ReferencesEtymology[edit] It is a corrupted form of Sanskrit word Acharya. The honorific suffix n is added with a phonetic change in pronounce mutates it in to Aasaan [2] It was used by locals as an alternative colloquial term to address teachers in Kerala and Tamil Nadu[3][self-published source] Traditions[edit] Generally the Kaniyar or Ganaka people of Kerala in India, particularly from southern region were held this title Asan by virtue of their past vocation as Kalari teachers [4][5] They acted as the media for sanskritisation and literacy to Non-Brahmins[6] Ezhuthuassan was another name in which they were known at certain regions of Kerala
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Bengali Language
অবহট্টOld BengaliDialectssee Bengali dialectsWriting system Eastern Nagari script
Eastern Nagari script
(Bengali alphabet) Bengali BrailleSigned formsBengali signed forms[4]Official statusOfficial language in Bangladesh   India
India
(in West Bengal, Tripura
Tripura
& Southern Assam)Regulated by Bangla Academy Paschimbanga Bangla AkademiLanguage codesISO 639-1 bnISO 639-2 benISO 639-3 benGlottolog beng1280[5]Linguasphere 59-AAF-uBengali speaking region of South AsiaBengali speakers around the worldThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.This article contains Bengali text
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