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Gunwale
The gunwale (/ˈɡʌnəl/) is the top edge of the side of a boat.[1] Originally the gunwale was the "gun ridge" on a sailing warship. This represented the strengthening wale or structural band added to the design of the ship, at and above the level of a gun deck. It was designed to accommodate the stresses imposed by the use of artillery. In wooden boats, the gunwale remained, mounted inboard of the sheer strake, regardless of the use of gunnery. In modern boats, it is the top edge of the side where there is usually some form of stiffening. On a canoe, the gunwale is typically the widened edge at the top of the side of the boat, where the edge is reinforced with wood, plastic or aluminum and to which the thwarts are attached. Modern cedar-strip canoes have gunwales which consist of inner and outer parts called "inwales" and "outwales". These two parts of the gunwale give rigidity and strength to the hull
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Boat
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of sizes designed to float, plane, work or travel on water. Small boats are typically found on inland waterways (e.g. rivers and lakes) or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed for operation as a ship in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel (a ship). An older tradition is that a ship has a weather deck fully enclosing the hull space, while a boat lacks a full weather deck; this is suggested as the reason why submarines are referred to as 'boats' rather than 'ships', as a cylindrical hull has interior decks but no weatherdeck. Another definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water. Some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet (300 m) long on the Great Lakes are called oreboats
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Wood
Wood
Wood
is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood
Wood
is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees,[1] or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs.[citation needed] In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It also conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots
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Gun
A gun is a tubular ranged weapon typically designed to pneumatically discharge projectiles[1] that are solid (most guns) but can also be liquid (as in water guns/cannons and projected water disruptors) or even charged particles (as in a plasma gun) and may be free-flying (as with bullets and artillery shells) or tethered (as with Taser
Taser
guns, spearguns and harpoon guns). The means of projectile propulsion vary according to designs, but are traditionally effected by a high gas pressure contained within a shooting tube (gun barrel), produced either through the rapid combustion of propellants (as with firearms), or by mechanical compression (as with air guns). The high-pressure gas is introduced behind the projectile, accelerating it down the length of the tube, imparting sufficient launch velocity to sustain its further travel towards the target once the propelling gas ceases acting upon it at the end of the tube
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Narrowboat
A narrowboat or narrow boat is a boat of a distinctive design, made to fit the narrow canals of the United Kingdom. A narrowboat must be under 7 feet (2.13 m) (most modern boats are usually produced to a maximum of 6 feet 10 inches (2.08 m) wide). Their maximum length is 72 feet (21.95 m). Anything wider or longer will be unable to navigate most of the British canal network. The first narrow boats played a key part in the economic changes of the British Industrial Revolution. They were wooden boats drawn by a horse walking on the canal towpath led by a crew member. Horses were gradually replaced with steam and then diesel engines. With the advent of the railways commercial canal traffic gradually diminished and the last regular long-distance traffic disappeared in 1970. However, some traffic continued into the 1980s and beyond. By the end of the 19th century it was common practice to paint roses and castles on narrow boats and their fixtures and fittings
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Rowing (sport)
Rowing, often referred to as crew in the United States,[1] is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat (racing shell) on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats.[2] There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell (called a single scull) to an eight-person shell with coxswain (called a coxed eight). Modern rowing as a competitive sport can be traced to the early 10th century when races were held between professional watermen on the River Thames
River Thames
in London, United Kingdom. Often prizes were offered by the London
London
Guilds
Guilds
and Livery Companies
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Thwarts
A thwart is a strut placed crosswise (left/right) in a ship or boat, to brace it crosswise. In rowboats it can also serve as a seat for a rower. Some inflatable boats have a thwart which can be folded and removed so the boat can be deflated and rolled up for transport or storage.[1][2] References[edit]^ Autorenkoll, Ulrich Scharnow, Leiter d. (1988). Transpress-Lexikon Seefahrt (5., bearb. u. erg. Aufl. ed.). Berlin: Transpress. p. 123. ISBN 3344001906.  ^ Hamburg], Reinhard Goltz ; [Herausgeber, Altonaer Museum in (1984). Die Sprache der Finkenwerder Fischer : die Finkenwerder Hochseefischerei : Studien zur Entwicklung eines Fachwortschatzes. Herford: Koehler. p. 113. ISBN 3782203429. Look up thwart in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.This article related to shipbuilding is a stub
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Aluminum
Aluminium
Aluminium
or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium
Aluminium
metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.[5] Aluminium
Aluminium
is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation
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Plastic
Note 1: The use of this term instead of polymer is a source of confusion and thus is not recommended. Note 2: This term is used in polymer engineering for materials often compounded that can be processed by flow.[1] Plastic
Plastic
is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects. Plasticity is the general property of all materials which can deform irreversibly without breaking but, in the class of moldable polymers, this occurs to such a degree that their actual name derives from this specific ability. Plastics are typically organic polymers of high molecular mass and often contain other substances
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Bitts
Bitts
Bitts
are paired vertical wooden or iron posts mounted either aboard a ship or on a wharf, pier or quay. The posts are used to secure mooring lines, ropes, hawsers, or cables.[1] Bitts
Bitts
aboard wooden sailing ships (sometime called cable-bitts) were large vertical timbers mortised into the keel and used as the anchor cable attachment point.[2] Bitts are carefully manufactured and maintained to avoid any sharp edges which might chafe and weaken the mooring lines.[3] Use[edit] Mooring lines may be laid around the bitts either singly or in a figure-8 pattern with the friction against tension increasing with each successive turn
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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Gun Deck
The term gun deck used to refer to a deck aboard a ship that was primarily used for the mounting of cannon to be fired in broadsides. The term is generally applied to decks enclosed under a roof; smaller and unrated vessels carried their guns on the upper deck, forecastle and quarterdeck, and these were not described as gun decks.[1] On marine seismic survey vessels, the lowest deck on the ship is normally referred to as the gun deck. This deck carries the seismic source arrays, consisting of air guns arranged in clusters.[2][3] Slang[edit] The term "gun deck" is also navy slang for fabricating or falsifying something. A possible explanation relates to midshipmen retiring to the gun deck to complete their celestial navigation assignments of computing the ship's position three times daily following morning star sights, noon sun line, and evening star sights
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Warship
A warship is a naval ship that is built and primarily intended for naval warfare. Usually they belong to the armed forces of a state.[1] As well as being armed, warships are designed to withstand damage and are usually faster and more maneuverable than merchant ships. Unlike a merchant ship, which carries cargo, a warship typically carries only weapons, ammunition and supplies for its crew. Warships usually belong to a navy, though they have also been operated by individuals, cooperatives and corporations. In wartime, the distinction between warships and merchant ships is often blurred. In war, merchant ships are often armed and used as auxiliary warships, such as the Q-ships of the First World War
First World War
and the armed merchant cruisers of the Second World War. Until the 17th century it was common for merchant ships to be pressed into naval service and not unusual for more than half a fleet to be composed of merchant ships
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Sailing
Sailing
Sailing
employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail that is too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction (as perceived on the craft) to mobilize the power of the wind. The forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull, keel, and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of recreation or sport
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Watercraft Rowing
Rowing
Rowing
is the act of propelling a boat using the motion of oars in the water, displacing water, and propelling the boat forward. The difference between paddling and rowing is that rowing requires oars to have a mechanical connection with the boat, while paddles are hand-held and have no mechanical connection. This article deals with the more general types of rowing, such as for recreation and transport rather than the sport of competitive rowing which is a specialized case of racing using strictly regulated equipment and a highly refined technique.[1]Contents1 Types of rowing systems 2 Ancient rowing 3 Venetian Rowing 4 Whitehall rowboats 5 Design factors of rowing boats 6 Oars 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksTypes of rowing systems[edit] In some localities, rear-facing systems prevail. In other localities, forward-facing systems prevail, especially in crowded areas such as in Venice, Italy and in Asian and Indonesian rivers and harbors
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Wale
A wale is a thick plank of wood fastened to the side of a ship to provide protection from wear.[1] The garboard is the wale next to the keel; the gunwale is the top such plank and covers the heads of the timbers between the main and fore drifts.[2] In barging terms, the inwale connects the tops of the futtocks to provide the ledge on which the beams and carlings are rested. It is bolted through to the outer wale, which eventually would be flush with the double planking.[3] Wale is also a term for a horizontal member of a tieback wall which transmits the force from the tieback to the beams.[citation needed][clarification needed] See also[edit]StrakeReferences[edit]^ Kemp, Peter, ed. (1976). The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 922–923.  ^ Steel: Explanation of shipbuilding terms 1805 ^ March, Edgar J (1948). Spritsail barges of the Thames and Medway. London: Percival Marshall
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