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Gulag
The Gulag
Gulag
(Russian: ГУЛАГ, IPA: [ɡʊˈlak] ( listen); acronym of Glavnoye Upravleniye Lagerej, Main Camps' Administration or Chief Administration of [Corrective Labor] Camps) was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin[1][2] and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s. The term is also commonly used in English language to refer to any forced-labor camp in the Soviet Union, including camps that existed in post- Stalin
Stalin
times.[3][4] The camps housed a wide range of convicts, from petty criminals to political prisoners. Large numbers were convicted by simplified procedures, such as NKVD
NKVD
troikas and other instruments of extrajudicial punishment
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Yuri Andropov
Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (/ænˈdroʊpɔːf, -pɒf/;[1] Russian: Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов, tr. Yuriy Vladimirovich Andropov, IPA: [ˈjʉrʲɪj vlɐˈdʲimʲɪrəvʲɪtɕ ɐnˈdropəf]; 15 June [O.S. 2 June] 1914 – 9 February 1984)[2] was a Soviet politician and the fourth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Following the 18-year rule of the late Leonid Brezhnev, Andropov served in the post for only 15 months, from November 1982 until his own death in February 1984
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State Council Of The Soviet Union
Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, the State Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Russian: Государственный Совет СССР), but also known as the State Soviet, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet Union. The members of the council consisted of the President
President
of the Soviet Union, and highest officials (which typically was presidents of their republics) from the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
Republics
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Stephen G. Wheatcroft
Stephen G. Wheatcroft (born 1 June 1947)[1] is professor of the School of Historical Studies, University of Melbourne. His research interests include Russian pre-revolutionary and Soviet social, economic and demographic history, as well as famine and food supply problems in modern world history, the impact of media on history, and in recent developments in Russian and Ukrainian society.[2] Wheatcroft speaks Russian fluently and has spent a good portion of his career researching in the Soviet archives.[3] Wheatcroft was named a fellow of the Academy of the Social Sciences in Australia in 2005.[4]Contents1 Selected Works1.1 Books 1.2 Articles2 ReferencesSelected Works[edit] Books[edit]Davies, R. W.; Harrison, Mark; Wheatcroft, S. G. (1994). The Economic Transformation of the Soviet Union, 1913–1945. Cambridge University Press
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Mitrokhin Archive
The Mitrokhin Archive is a collection of handwritten notes made secretly by KGB
KGB
archivist Vasili Mitrokhin during his thirty years as a KGB
KGB
archivist in the foreign intelligence service and the First Chief Directorate. When he defected to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1992 he brought the archive with him. The official historian of the MI5
MI5
Christopher Andrew[1] wrote two books, Sword and the Shield (1999) and The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB
KGB
and the Battle for the Third World (2005), based on material in the archives
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Vasili Mitrokhin
Vasili Nikitich Mitrokhin (Russian: Васи́лий Ники́тич Митро́хин; March 3, 1922 – January 23, 2004) was a major and senior archivist for the Soviet Union's foreign intelligence service, the First Chief Directorate
First Chief Directorate
of the KGB, who defected to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1992 after providing the British embassy in Riga with a vast collection of KGB
KGB
files, which became known as the Mitrokhin Archive.[1] The intelligence files given by Mitrokhin to the MI6
MI6
exposed an unknown number of Russian agents, including Melita Norwood.[1] He was co-author with Christopher Andrew of The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB
KGB
in Europe and the West, a massive account of Soviet intelligence operations based on copies of material from the archive
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Extrajudicial Punishment
Extrajudicial punishment is punishment for an alleged crime or offense carried out without legal process or supervision from a court or tribunal through a legal proceeding.Contents1 Politically motivated 2 Around the world2.1 Previously 2.2 Currently3 Human rights groups 4 See also 5 Sources 6 References 7 External linksPolitically motivated[edit] Extrajudicial punishment is often a feature of politically repressive regimes, but even self-proclaimed or internationally recognized democracies have been known to use extrajudicial punishment under certain circumstances. Although the legal use of capital punishment is generally decreasing around the world, individuals or groups deemed threatening—or even simply "undesirable"—to a government may nevertheless be targeted for punishment by a regime or its representatives
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Nobel Prize In Literature
The Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Literature
Literature
(Swedish: Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).[2][3] Though individual works are sometimes cited as being particularly noteworthy, here "work" refers to an author's work as a whole. The Swedish Academy decides who, if anyone, will receive the prize in any given year. The academy announces the name of the chosen laureate in early October
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Orgburo
The Orgburo (Russian: Оргбюро́), also known as the Organisational Bureau (Russian: организационное бюро), of the Central Committee of the Communist
Communist
Party of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
existed from 1919 to 1952, until it was abolished at the 19th Congress of the Communist
Communist
Party and its functions were transferred to the enlarged Secretariat.[1]Contents1 Role 2 Election and chronology 3 See also 4 ReferencesRole[edit] The Orgburo was created to make important decisions about organisational work in the Soviet Union. It oversaw the work of local party committees and had the power to select and place Communist members in the positions that they saw fit.[1] The functions of the Orgburo and the Politburo were often interconnected, but the latter was ultimately the final decision-maker
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Acronym
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO
NATO
or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux). There are no universal standards of the multiple names for such abbreviations and of their orthographic styling. In English and most other languages, such abbreviations historically had limited use, but they became much more common in the 20th century
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Russian Language
Russian (Russian: ру́сский язы́к, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language
East Slavic language
and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and many minor or unrecognised territories throughout Eurasia
Eurasia
(particularly in Eastern Europe, the Baltics, the Caucasus, and Central Asia). It is an unofficial but widely spoken language in Latvia, Moldova, Ukraine
Ukraine
and to a lesser extent, the other post-Soviet states.[31][32] Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages
Indo-European languages
and is one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages
Slavic languages
(which in turn is part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch)
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Human Rights Group
A human rights group, or human rights organization, is a non-governmental organization which advocates for human rights through identification of their violation, collecting incident data, its analysis and publication, promotion of public awareness while conducting institutional advocacy, and lobbying to halt these violations. Like other NGOs, human rights groups are defined in their characteristics by legal, including taxation, constraints under which they operate, such as[1]1. is 'non-governmental' meaning that it is established by private initiative, is free from governmental influence, and does not perform public functions. 2. has an aim that is not-for-profit, meaning that if any profits are earned by the organisation they are not distributed to its members but used in the pursuit of its objective, 3. does not use or promote violence or have clear connections with criminality, and 4
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Magadan
Magadan
Magadan
(Russian: Магадан, IPA: [məɡɐˈdan]) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan
Magadan
Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk
Sea of Okhotsk
in Nagayev Bay
Nagayev Bay
(within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma
Kolyma
region. Population: 95,982 (2010 Census);[11] 99,399 (2002 Census);[17] 151,652 (1989 Census).[18]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Economy and infrastructure 4 Culture and religion 5 Geography5.1 Climate6 Education 7 Notable people 8 Twin towns and sister cities 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Sources10 External linksHistory[edit] Magadan
Magadan
was founded in 1930 in the Magadan
Magadan
River valley,[15] near the settlement of Nagayevo
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Nicolas Werth
Nicolas Werth (born 1950) is a French historian, and an internationally known expert on communist studies, particularly the history of the Soviet Union. He is the son of Alexander Werth, a Russian-born British journalist and writer. He wrote the chapters dedicated to the USSR in The Black Book of Communism. Werth is a research director at the Institut d'histoire du temps présent (fr), affiliate to CNRS. Since the 2000s, all his books are financed by the Hoover Institution.[1] In 2007, he was the historic consultant for the French television documentary film, Staline: le tyran rouge, broadcast on M6. Works[edit]Cannibal Island: Death in a Siberian Gulag, Princeton University Press, 2007, ISBN 9780691130835 , 2007. (about the Nazino affair) Être communiste en URSS sous Staline. Paris: Gallimard, 1981. La Vie quotidienne des paysans russes de la Révolution à la collectivisation (1917-1939). Paris: Hachette, 1984. Rapports secrets soviétiques
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Russian Arctic
The Extreme North or Far North (Russian: Крайний Север, Дальний Север) is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources
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Presidential Council Of The Soviet Union
The Presidential Council was created in March 1990 to replace the Politburo
Politburo
as the major policymaking body in the USSR. According to article 127 in the Soviet constitution
Soviet constitution
the job of the presidential council was "to implement the basic thrust of USSR's domestic and foreign policy and ensure the country's security". It was abolished on 26 December 1990
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