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Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Guided Democracy (Indonesian: Demokrasi Terpimpin) was the political system in place in Indonesia
Indonesia
from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. It was the brainchild of President Sukarno, and was an attempt to bring about political stability. Sukarno
Sukarno
believed that parliamentarian system implemented during the liberal democracy period was ineffective due to Indonesia's divisive political situation at that time. Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, which occurred under the guidance of village elders
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Nasakom
Nasakom
Nasakom
was a political concept during the Sukarno
Sukarno
presidency in Indonesia. It is an acronym based on the Indonesian words NASionalisme ('nationalism'), Agama ('religion'), and KOMunisme ('communism').[1][2][3][4] By 1956 Sukarno
Sukarno
was openly criticising parliamentary democracy, stating that it was "based upon inherent conflict" which ran counter to Indonesian notions of harmony as being the natural state of human relationships. Instead, he sought a system based on the traditional village system of discussion and consensus, under the guidance of village elders. He proposed the threefold blend of nationalism, religion and communism into a co-operative 'Nas-A-Kom' government. This was intended to appease the three main factions in Indonesian politics — the army, Islamic groups, and the communists
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Johor Sultanate
The Sultanate of Johor
Johor
(or sometimes Johor- Riau
Riau
or Johor-Riau-Lingga or Johor
Johor
Empire) was founded by Malaccan Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud Shah's son, Sultan
Sultan
Alauddin Riayat Shah II in 1528.[1] Johor
Johor
was part of the Malaccan Sultanate before the Portuguese conquered Malacca's capital in 1511
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Pagaruyung Kingdom
Pagaruyung (also Pagarruyung, Pagar Ruyung and, Malayapura or Malayupura)[2] was the seat of the Minangkabau kings of Western Sumatra,[3] though little is known about it. Modern Pagaruyung is a village in Tanjung Emas subdistrict, Tanah Datar
Tanah Datar
regency, located near the town of Batusangkar, Indonesia.Contents1 History1.1 Beginnings 1.2 Padri War2 Notes 3 SourcesHistory[edit] Adityawarman
Adityawarman
statue in the National Museum of IndonesiaBeginnings[edit] Adityawarman
Adityawarman
is believed to have founded the kingdom and presided over the central Sumatra
Sumatra
region between 1347 and 1375,[4] most likely to control the local gold trade. The few artefacts recovered from Adityawarman's reign include a number of stones containing inscriptions, and statues
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Bruneian Empire
The Bruneian Empire
Empire
or Empire
Empire
of Brunei
Brunei
/bruːˈnaɪ/, also known as Sultanate of Brunei
Brunei
or Negara Brunei, was a Malay sultanate, centred in Brunei
Brunei
on the northern coast of Borneo
Borneo
island in Southeast Asia. The kingdom was founded in the early 7th century, started as a small seafaring trading kingdom ruled by a native pagan or Hindu
Hindu
king known by the Chinese as Po-Li or Po-Ni (渤泥)
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Malacca Sultanate
The Malacca
Malacca
Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate
Malay sultanate
centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks c
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Sultanate Of Sulu
Neolithic
Neolithic
ageCallao and Tabon peoples Arrival of the Negritos Austronesian expansion Angono Petroglyphs Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens Jade cultureIron ageSa Huyun Culture Society of the Igorot Ancient barangaysEvents/ArtifactsBalangay grave goods Manunggul Jar Prehistoric gems Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex Maitum Anthropomorphic PotteryArchaic epoch (900–1565) Historically documented city-states/polities (by geography from North to South)Samtoy chieftaincy Caboloan Tondo Namayan Rajahnate of Maynila Ma-i Madja-as Chiefdom of Taytay Rajahnate of
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Sultanate Of Cirebon
Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler
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Demak Sultanate
The Demak Sultanate
Sultanate
was a Javanese Muslim
Muslim
state located on Java's north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak
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Aceh Sultanate
The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Aceh, officially the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam (Acehnese: Keurajeuën Acèh Darussalam; Jawoë: كاورجاون اچيه دارالسلام), was a Sultanate
Sultanate
centred in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh. It was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline. Its capital was Kutaraja, the present-day Banda Aceh. At its peak it was a formidable enemy of the Sultanate
Sultanate
of Johor and Portuguese-controlled Malacca, both on the Malayan Peninsula, as all three attempted to control the trade through the Strait of Malacca
Malacca
and the regional exports of pepper and tin with fluctuating success
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Banten Sultanate
The Banten
Banten
Sultanate
Sultanate
was founded in the 16th century and centred in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java; the contemporary English spelling of both was Bantam. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, who had previously founded Cirebon. Once a great trading centre in Southeast Asia, especially of pepper, its importance was overshadowed by Batavia, and finally annexed to Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
in 1813. Its core territory now forms the Indonesian province of Banten
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Kalinyamat Sultanate
Kalinyamat Sultanate, Kalinyamat Kingdom or Jepara
Jepara
Kingdom, was a 16th-century Javanese Islamic polity in the northern part of the island of Java, centred in modern-day Jepara, Central Java, Indonesia. Both Jepara
Jepara
and Kalinyamat was first established as a Duchy settlements under Demak Sultanate. After succession feud, Kalinyamat was declared as a separate polity from Demak
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Mataram Sultanate
The Sultanate of Mataram /məˈtɑːrəm/ was the last major independent Javanese kingdom on Java
Java
before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force radiating from the interior Central Java
Java
from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.[1] Mataram reached its peak of power during the reign of Sultan
Sultan
Agung Hanyokrokusumo (r. 1613–1645), and began to decline after his death in 1645. By the mid-18th century, Mataram lost both power and territory to the Dutch East India Company
Dutch East India Company
(Dutch: Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie; VOC)
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Siak Sultanate
The Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura, often called Sultanate of Siak (Indonesian: Kesultanan Siak Sri Inderapura; Jawi: كسولتانن سياق سري ايندراڤورا‬), was a kingdom that was located in the Siak Regency, Riau
Riau
from 1723 to 1946 CE
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Ternate Sultanate
The Sultanate
Sultanate
of Ternate
Ternate
is one of the oldest Muslim kingdoms in Indonesia, established by Baab Mashur Malamo in 1257. It reached its Golden Age during the reign of Sultan Baabullah (1570–1583) and encompassed most of the eastern part of Indonesia
Indonesia
and a part of southern Philippines. Ternate
Ternate
was a major producer of cloves and a regional power from the 15th to 17th centuries. The dynasty founded by Baab Mashur Malamo continues to the present, as does the Sultanate
Sultanate
itself, although it no longer holds any political power.Contents1 History1.1 Pre-colonial period 1.2 16th century to the present2 List of Sultans 3 Palace 4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Pre-colonial period[edit] The sultanate was originally named the Kingdom of Gapi, but later changed the name to be based off its capital, Ternate
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Surakarta Sunanate
Surakarta
Surakarta
Sunanate (Indonesian: Kasunanan Surakarta; Javanese: Kasunanan/Karaton Surakarta
Surakarta
Hadiningrat; Dutch: Soerakarta) is a Javanese monarchy centred in the city of Surakarta, in the province of Central Java, Indonesia. The Surakarta
Surakarta
Kraton was established in 1745 by Pakubuwono II. Surakarta
Surakarta
Sunanate and Yogyakarta Sultanate
Yogyakarta Sultanate
are together the successors of Mataram Sultanate. Unlike their counterparts in Yogyakarta, who use the title of sultan, the rulers of Surakarta
Surakarta
use the title of sunan. The Dutch name was used during Dutch colonial rule until the 1940s
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