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Guard Cell
GUARD CELLS are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange. They are produced in pairs with a gap between them that forms a stomatal pore. The stomatal pores are largest when water is freely available and the guard cells turgid , and closed when water availability is critically low and the guard cells become flaccid. Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
depends on the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air through the stomata into the mesophyll tissues. Oxygen
Oxygen
(O2), produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis, exits the plant via the stomata. When the stomata are open, water is lost by evaporation and must be replaced via the transpiration stream , with water taken up by the roots
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Organelle
In cell biology , an ORGANELLE (/ɔːrɡəˈnɛl/ ) is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function. Individual organelles are usually separately enclosed within their own lipid bilayers . The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are parts of cells, as organs are to the body , hence organelle, the suffix -elle being a diminutive . Organelles are identified by microscopy , and can also be purified by cell fractionation . There are many types of organelles, particularly in eukaryotic cells. While prokaryotes do not possess organelles per se, some do contain protein-based bacterial microcompartments , which are thought to act as primitive organelles
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Arabidopsis Thaliana
Arabis thaliana ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA, the THALE CRESS, MOUSE-EAR CRESS or ARABIDOPSIS, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia
Eurasia
and Africa
Africa
. A. thaliana is considered a weed; it is found by roadsides and in disturbed land. A winter annual with a relatively short life cycle, A. thaliana is a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics. For a complex multicellular eukaryote , A. thaliana has a relatively small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs (Mbp). It was the first plant to have its genome sequenced, and is a popular tool for understanding the molecular biology of many plant traits, including flower development and light sensing
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Vacuole
A VACUOLE (/ˈvækjuːoʊl/ ) is a membrane -bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist , animal and bacterial cells. Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution , though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. Vacuoles are formed by the fusion of multiple membrane vesicles and are effectively just larger forms of these. The organelle has no basic shape or size; its structure varies according to the needs of the cell. The function and significance of vacuoles varies greatly according to the type of cell in which they are present, having much greater prominence in the cells of plants, fungi and certain protists than those of animals and bacteria
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Plasma Membrane
The CELL MEMBRANE (also known as the PLASMA MEMBRANE or CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment . The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins . Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion , ion conductivity and cell signalling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall , glycocalyx , and intracellular cytoskeleton . Cell membranes can be artificially reassembled
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Calcium
CALCIUM is a chemical element with symbol CA and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal , calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium . It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium . The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate , found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum , anhydrite , fluorite , and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy
Humphry Davy
in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Depolarization
In biology, DEPOLARIZATION is a change within a cell , during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell. Depolarization
Depolarization
is essential to the function of many cells, communication between cells, and the overall physiology of an organism. Action potential
Action potential
in a neuron , showing depolarization and repolarization Most cells in higher organisms maintain an internal environment that is negatively charged relative to the cell's exterior. This difference in charge is called the cell's membrane potential . In the process of depolarization, the negative internal charge of the cell temporarily becomes more positive (less negative). This shift from a negative to a more positive membrane potential occurs during several processes, including an action potential
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Genetics
GENETICS is the study of genes , genetic variation , and heredity in living organisms . It is generally considered a field of biology , but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems . The father of genetics is Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
, a late 19th-century scientist and Augustinian friar . Mendel studied "trait inheritance", patterns in the way traits are handed down from parents to offspring. He observed that organisms (pea plants) inherit traits by way of discrete "units of inheritance". This term, still used today, is a somewhat ambiguous definition of what is referred to as a gene . Trait inheritance and molecular inheritance mechanisms of genes are still primary principles of genetics in the 21st century, but modern genetics has expanded beyond inheritance to studying the function and behavior of genes
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Membrane Trafficking
In cell biology , a VESICLE is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular , consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer . Vesicles form naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis ), uptake (endocytosis ) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm. Alternatively, they may be prepared artificially, in which case they are called liposomes (not to be confused with lysosomes ). If there is only one phospholipid bilayer , they are called unilamellar liposome vesicles; otherwise they are called multilamellar. The membrane enclosing the VESICLE is also a lamellar phase , similar to that of the plasma membrane and vesicles can fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell. Vesicles can also fuse with other organelles within the cell. Vesicles perform a variety of functions. Because it is separated from the cytosol , the inside of the vesicle can be made to be different from the cytosolic environment
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Guard Cell
GUARD CELLS are specialized cells in the epidermis of leaves, stems and other organs that are used to control gas exchange. They are produced in pairs with a gap between them that forms a stomatal pore. The stomatal pores are largest when water is freely available and the guard cells turgid , and closed when water availability is critically low and the guard cells become flaccid. Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
depends on the diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air through the stomata into the mesophyll tissues. Oxygen
Oxygen
(O2), produced as a byproduct of photosynthesis, exits the plant via the stomata. When the stomata are open, water is lost by evaporation and must be replaced via the transpiration stream , with water taken up by the roots
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Ottoline Leyser
DAME HENRIETTA MIRIAM OTTOLINE LEYSER DAY DBE FRS (born 7 March 1965 ), known as OTTOLINE LEYSER, is a British plant biologist and Professor
Professor
of Plant Development at the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
and director of the Sainsbury Laboratory, Cambridge . CONTENTS * 1 Education * 2 Research * 3 Awards and honours * 4 Personal life * 5 References EDUCATIONLeyser was educated at Newnham College, Cambridge where she received her Bachelor of Arts degree in 1986, and a PhD in Genetics
Genetics
in 1990 from the same University for research supervised by Ian Furner. RESEARCHLeyser's research interests are in the genetics of plant development and the interaction of plant hormones with the environment. AWARDS AND HONOURS This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Cytoskeleton
A CYTOSKELETON is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea , bacteria , eukaryotes ). It is a complex network of interlinking filaments and tubules that extend throughout the cytoplasm , from the nucleus to the plasma membrane. The cytoskeletal systems of different organisms are composed of similar proteins. In eukaryotes, the cytoskeletal matrix is a dynamic structure composed of three main proteins, which are capable of rapid growth or disassembly dependent on the cell's requirements at a certain period of time. The structure, function and dynamic behaviour of the cytoskeleton can be very different, depending on organism and cell type. Even within one cell the cytoskeleton can change through association with other proteins and the previous history of the network
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Transcription (genetics)
TRANSCRIPTION is the first step of gene expression , in which a particular segment of DNA
DNA
is copied into RNA
RNA
(especially m RNA
RNA
) by the enzyme RNA
RNA
polymerase . Both DNA
DNA
and RNA
RNA
are nucleic acids , which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA
DNA
sequence is read by an RNA
RNA
polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA
RNA
strand called a primary transcript
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Malate
MALIC ACID is an organic compound with the molecular formula C4H6O5. It is a dicarboxylic acid that is made by all living organisms, contributes to the pleasantly sour taste of fruits, and is used as a food additive. Malic acid has two stereoisomeric forms (L- and D-enantiomers), though only the L-isomer exists naturally. The salts and esters of malic acid are known as MALATES. The malate anion is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle . CONTENTS * 1 Biochemistry
Biochemistry
* 2 In food * 3 Production and main reactions * 4 Interactive pathway map * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links BIOCHEMISTRYL- Malic acid is the naturally occurring form, whereas a mixture of L- and D-malic acid is produced synthetically. * L- Malic acid * D- Malic acid Malate
Malate
plays an important role in biochemistry
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Potassium Channel
POTASSIUM CHANNELS are the most widely distributed type of ion channel and are found in virtually all living organisms. They form potassium -selective pores that span cell membranes . Furthermore potassium channels are found in most cell types and control a wide variety of cell functions. CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 Types * 3 Structure * 3.1 Selectivity filter * 3.1.1 Selectivity mechanism * 3.2 Hydrophobic region * 3.3 Central cavity * 4 Regulation * 5 Blockers * 6 Muscarinic potassium channel * 7 In fine art * 8 See also * 9 References * 10 External links FUNCTION Potassium
Potassium
channels function to conduct potassium ions down their electrochemical gradient , doing so both rapidly (up to the diffusion rate of K+ ions in bulk water) and selectively (excluding, most notably, sodium despite the sub-angstrom difference in ionic radius)
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