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Guano
GUANO (from Quechua "wani" via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds, seals, or cave-dwelling bats . As a manure , guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen , phosphate and potassium : nutrients essential for plant growth. The 19th-century guano trade played a pivotal role in the development of modern input-intensive farming practices and inspired the formal human colonization of remote bird islands in many parts of the world. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds became an important target of conservation programs and influenced the development of environmental consciousness. Today, guano is increasingly sought after by organic farmers
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Explosive Material
An EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL, also called an EXPLOSIVE, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light , heat , sound , and pressure . An EXPLOSIVE CHARGE is a measured quantity of explosive material, which may be composed of a single ingredient or a combination of two or more. The potential energy stored in an explosive material may, for example, be * chemical energy , such as nitroglycerin or grain dust * pressurized gas , such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can * nuclear energy, such as in the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239 Explosive materials may be categorized by the speed at which they expand. Materials that detonate (the front of the chemical reaction moves faster through the material than the speed of sound ) are said to be "high explosives" and materials that deflagrate are said to be "low explosives"
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Nauru
Coordinates : 0°32′S 166°56′E / 0.533°S 166.933°E / -0.533; 166.933 (Nauru) Republic of Nauru Repubrikin Naoero (Nauruan ) Flag Coat of arms MOTTO: "God's will first" ANTHEM: Nauru Bwiema "Nauru, our homeland" CAPITAL Yaren (de facto ) LARGEST CITY Denigomodu OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Nauruan (native) * English (widely spoken) DEMONYM Nauruan GOVERNMENT Non-partisan democracy , parliamentary republic • PRESIDENT Bar
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Robert Cushman Murphy
ROBERT CUSHMAN MURPHY (April 29, 1887 – March 20, 1973) was an American ornithologist and Lamont Curator of birds at the American Museum of Natural History . Murphy was born in Brooklyn, New York , to Thomas D. Murphy and Augusta Cushman. He was an undergraduate at Brown University , where he graduated in 1911. The author of over 600 scientific articles, he also wrote such books as Logbook for Grace: Whaling Brig Daisy, 1912-1913 and Oceanic Birds of South America. In 1951, Murphy led the expedition that rediscovered the Bermuda petrel , or cahow, a bird believed to have been extinct for 330 years. In 1936 Murphy was awarded the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal of the National Academy of Sciences . He was elected a Corresponding Member of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists\' Union in 1939. After Murphy's retirement to Old Field, New York , in 1957, he, along with other citizens of Long Island including Archibald Roosevelt , unsuccessfully sued to stop the spraying of DDT
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William Vogt
WILLIAM VOGT (15 May 1902 – 11 July 1968) was an ecologist and ornithologist , with a strong interest in population control . He was the author of best-seller Road to Survival (1948), National Director of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America and secretary of the Conservation Foundation. CONTENTS* 1 Biography * 1.1 Road to Survival * 2 Honors * 3 References * 4 Sources BIOGRAPHYWilliam Vogt was born in Mineola, New York . After graduating with honors in 1925 from St. Stephens (now Bard) College , he was, among other things, an early opponent of marshland drainage for mosquito control and later assumed a series of positions that gave him the opportunity to further pursue his interests in birds and the environment. ROAD TO SURVIVALIn 1942, he was made Associate Director of the Division of Science and Education of the Office of the Coordinator in Inter-American Affairs
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Atacama Desert
Coordinates : 24°30′S 69°15′W / 24.500°S 69.250°W / -24.500; -69.250 Atacama Desert Desert Atacama by NASA World Wind
NASA World Wind
COUNTRY Chile
Chile
AREA 105,000 km2 (40,541 sq mi) BIOME Desert
Desert
Map of the Atacama Desert. The area most commonly defined as Atacama is yellow. In orange are the outlying arid areas of southern Peru
Peru
, Altiplano
Altiplano
, Puna de Atacama and Norte Chico . The ATACAMA DESERT (Spanish : Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America
South America
, covering a 1,000-kilometre (600 mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes
Andes
mountains. It is the driest non-polar desert in the world
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Caliche
CALICHE (ka-lee'-chee, or sometimes klee'-chee) is a sedimentary rock , a hardened natural cement of calcium carbonate that binds other materials—such as gravel, sand, clay, and silt. It occurs worldwide, in aridisol and mollisol soil orders—generally in arid or semiarid regions, including in central and western Australia , in the Kalahari Desert , in the High Plains of the western USA , in the Sonoran Desert , and in Eastern Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa . Caliche is also known as HARDPAN , CALCRETE, KANKAR (in India), or DURICRUST . The term caliche is Spanish and is originally from the Latin calx, meaning lime . Caliche is generally light-colored, but can range from white to light pink to reddish-brown, depending on the impurities present. It generally occurs on or near the surface, but can be found in deeper subsoil deposits, as well. Layers vary from a few inches to feet thick, and multiple layers can exist in a single location
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Oman
Coordinates : 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57 Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان ( Arabic
Arabic
) Salṭanat ʻUmān Flag National emblem ANTHEM: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī " "Sultanic Salutation" Location of Oman
Oman
in the
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Patagonia
PATAGONIA (Spanish pronunciation: ) is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America
South America
, shared by Argentina
Argentina
and Chile
Chile
. The region comprises the southern section of the Andes mountains as well as the deserts , pampas and grasslands east of this southern portion of the Andes. Patagonia
Patagonia
has two coasts: western facing the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and eastern facing the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
. The Colorado and Barrancas rivers, which run from the Andes
Andes
to the Atlantic, are commonly considered the northern limit of Argentine Patagonia. The archipelago of Tierra del Fuego is sometimes included as part of Patagonia
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Sodium Nitrate
SODIUM NITRATE is the chemical compound with the formula Na N O 3. This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile
Chile
saltpeter (because large deposits of this salt can be found in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate . The mineral form is also known as nitratine , nitratite or soda niter . Sodium
Sodium
nitrate is a white solid very soluble in water . It is a readily available source of the nitrate anion (NO3−), which is useful in several reactions carried out on industrial scales for the production of fertilizers , pyrotechnics and smoke bombs , glass and pottery enamels , food preservatives (esp. meats), and solid rocket propellant . It has been mined extensively for these purposes
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Wildlife Conservation
WILDLIFE CONSERVATION is the practice of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitats . Wildlife
Wildlife
plays an important role in balancing the environment and provides stability to different natural processes of nature. The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and also to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness for humans and other species alike. Many nations have government agencies and NGO's dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife. Numerous independent non-profit organizations also promote various wildlife conservation causes
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South Africa
11 languages * Afrikaans
Afrikaans
* Northern Sotho * English * Southern Ndebele * Southern Sotho * Swazi * Tsonga * Tswana * Venda * Xhosa * Zulu ETHNIC GROUPS (2014 ) * 80.2% Black * 8.8% Coloured
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Île-de-Bréhat
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. BRéHAT (French : Île-de-Bréhat, Breton : Enez Vriad) is an island and commune located near Paimpol , a mile off the northern coast of Brittany . Administratively, it is a commune in the Côtes-d\'Armor department in northwestern France . Bréhat is actually an archipelago composed of two main islands , separated only at high tide, and many smaller ones. It is famous for its pink granite rocks, very mild micro-climate and Mediterranean vegetation, due to the warm Gulf Stream coming from across the Atlantic
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Upwelling
UPWELLING is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind -driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient -rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water . The nutrient-rich upwelled water stimulates the growth and reproduction of primary producers such as phytoplankton . Due to the biomass of phytoplankton and presence of cool water in these regions, upwelling zones can be identified by cool sea surface temperatures (SST) and high concentrations of chlorophyll-a . The increased availability in upwelling regions results in high levels of primary productivity and thus fishery production. Approximately 25% of the total global marine fish catches come from five upwellings that occupy only 5% of the total ocean area. Upwellings that are driven by coastal currents or diverging open ocean have the greatest impact on nutrient-enriched waters and global fishery yields
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Penguin
Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Range of penguins, all species (aqua)PENGUINS (order SPHENISCIFORMES, family SPHENISCIDAE) are a group of aquatic , flightless birds . They live almost exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere
, with only one species, the Galapagos penguin , found north of the equator. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage , and their wings have evolved into flippers . Most penguins feed on krill , fish , squid and other forms of sealife caught while swimming underwater. They spend about half of their lives on land and half in the oceans. Although almost all penguin species are native to the Southern Hemisphere, they are not found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica
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McMurdo Sound
MCMURDO SOUND and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres (34 mi) long and wide. The sound connects the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
to the north with the Ross Ice Shelf
Ross Ice Shelf
cavity to the south via Haskell Strait . The strait is largely covered by the McMurdo Ice Shelf . The Royal Society Range rises from sea level to 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on the western shoreline. Ross Island
Ross Island
, an historic jumping-off point for polar explorers, designates the eastern boundary. The active volcano Mount Erebus at 3,794 metres (12,448 ft) dominates Ross Island. Antarctica 's largest scientific base, the United States' McMurdo Station , as well as the New Zealand
New Zealand
Scott Base are on the southern shore of the island. Less than 10 percent of McMurdo Sound's shoreline is free of ice
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