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Guano
Guano
Guano
(from Quechua wanu via Spanish) is the accumulated excrement of seabirds and bats. As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium: nutrients essential for plant growth. The 19th-century guano trade played a pivotal role in the development of modern input-intensive farming practices and inspired the formal human colonization of remote bird islands in many parts of the world. During the twentieth century, guano-producing birds became an important target of conservation programs and influenced the development of environmental consciousness
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Ross Sea
The Ross Sea
Sea
is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean
Southern Ocean
in Antarctica, between Victoria Land
Victoria Land
and Marie Byrd Land
Marie Byrd Land
and within the Ross Embayment. It derives its name from the British explorer James Ross who visited this area in 1841. To the west of the sea lies Ross Island and Victoria Land, to the east Roosevelt Island and Edward VII Peninsula in Marie Byrd Land, while the southernmost part is covered by the Ross Ice Shelf, and is about 200 miles (320 km) from the South Pole
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William Vogt
William Vogt
William Vogt
(15 May 1902 – 11 July 1968) was an ecologist and ornithologist, with a strong interest in population control. He was the author of best-seller Road to Survival (1948), National Director of the Planned Parenthood Federation of America
Planned Parenthood Federation of America
and secretary of the Conservation Foundation.Contents1 Biography1.1 Road to Survival2 Legacy 3 Honors 4 References 5 SourcesBiography[edit] William Vogt
William Vogt
was born in Mineola, New York. After graduating with honors in 1925 from St
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McMurdo Sound
McMurdo Sound
McMurdo Sound
and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres (34 mi) long and wide. The sound connects the Ross Sea
Ross Sea
to the north with the Ross Ice Shelf
Ross Ice Shelf
cavity to the south via Haskell Strait. The strait is largely covered by the McMurdo Ice Shelf. The Royal Society Range rises from sea level to 4,205 metres (13,796 ft) on the western shoreline. Ross Island, an historic jumping-off point for polar explorers, designates the eastern boundary. The active volcano Mount Erebus
Mount Erebus
at 3,794 metres (12,448 ft) dominates Ross Island. Antarctica's largest scientific base, the United States' McMurdo Station, as well as the New Zealand
New Zealand
Scott Base
Scott Base
are on the southern shore of the island
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Sodium Nitrate
Sodium
Sodium
nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3. This alkali metal nitrate salt is also known as Chile
Chile
saltpeter (because large deposits of this salt can be found in Chile) to distinguish it from ordinary saltpeter, potassium nitrate. The mineral form is also known as nitratine, nitratite or soda niter. Sodium
Sodium
nitrate is a white solid very soluble in water. It is a readily available source of the nitrate anion (NO3−), which is useful in several reactions carried out on industrial scales for the production of fertilizers, pyrotechnics and smoke bombs, glass and pottery enamels, food preservatives (esp
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Caliche
Caliche
Caliche
(/kəˈliːtʃiː/) is a sedimentary rock, a hardened natural cement of calcium carbonate that binds other materials—such as gravel, sand, clay, and silt. It occurs worldwide, in aridisol and mollisol soil orders—generally in arid or semiarid regions, including in central and western Australia, in the Kalahari Desert, in the High Plains of the western USA, in the Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
and Mojave Desert, and in Eastern Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa. Caliche
Caliche
is also known as hardpan, calcrete, kankar (in India), or duricrust. The term caliche is Spanish and is originally from the Latin calx, meaning lime. Caliche
Caliche
is generally light-colored, but can range from white to light pink to reddish-brown, depending on the impurities present. It generally occurs on or near the surface, but can be found in deeper subsoil deposits, as well
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Atacama Desert
Coordinates: 24°30′S 69°15′W / 24.500°S 69.250°W / -24.500; -69.250Atacama DesertDesertAtacama by NASA
NASA
World
World
WindCountry ChileArea 105,000 km2 (40,541 sq mi)Biome DesertMap of the Atacama Desert: The area most commonly defined as Atacama is yellow. In orange are the outlying arid areas of the southern Chala, Altiplano, Puna de Atacama, and Norte Chico.The Atacama Desert
Desert
(Spanish: Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America, covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes
Andes
mountains
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Explosive Material
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure. An explosive charge is a measured quantity of explosive material, which may be composed of a single ingredient or a combination of two or more. The potential energy stored in an explosive material may, for example, bechemical energy, such as nitroglycerin or grain dust pressurized gas, such as a gas cylinder or aerosol can nuclear energy, such as in the fissile isotopes uranium-235 and plutonium-239 Explosive
Explosive
materials may be categorized by the speed at which they expand. Materials that detonate (the front of the chemical reaction moves faster through the material than the speed of sound) are said to be "high explosives" and materials that deflagrate are said to be "low explosives"
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Nauru
Coordinates: 0°32′S 166°56′E / 0.533°S 166.933°E / -0.533; 166.933 (Nauru)Republic of Nauru Repubrikin Naoero (Nauruan)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "God's will first"Anthem:  Nauru
Nauru
Bwiema "Nauru, our homeland"Capital Yaren (de facto) [a]Largest city MenengOfficial languages NauruanCommon languages English[a]Demonym NauruanGovernment Unitary parliamentary republic under a non-partisan democracy• PresidentBaron Waqa• Speaker of the ParliamentCyril BuramanLegislature ParliamentIn
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Robert Cushman Murphy
Robert Cushman Murphy
Robert Cushman Murphy
(April 29, 1887 – March 20, 1973) was an American ornithologist and Lamont Curator of birds at the American Museum of Natural History. Murphy was born in Brooklyn, New York, to Thomas D. Murphy and Augusta Cushman. He was an undergraduate at Brown University, where he graduated in 1911
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Wildlife Conservation
Wildlife
Wildlife
Conservation is the practise of protecting wild plant and animal species and their habitat. Wildlife
Wildlife
plays an important role in balancing the environment and provides stability to different natural processes of nature. The goal of wildlife conservation is to ensure that nature will be around for future generations to enjoy and also to recognize the importance of wildlife and wilderness for humans and other species alike.[1] Many nations have government agencies and NGO's dedicated to wildlife conservation, which help to implement policies designed to protect wildlife
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Oman
Coordinates: 21°N 57°E / 21°N 57°E / 21; 57Sultanate of Oman سلطنة عُمان (Arabic) Salṭanat ʻUmānFlagNational emblemAnthem: نشيد السلام السلطاني "as-Salām as-Sultānī" "Sultanic Salutation"Location of Oman
Oman
in the Arabian Peninsula
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South Africa
[Note 1]11 languagesAfrikaans Northern Sotho English Southern Ndebele Southern Sotho Swazi Tsonga Tswana Venda Xhosa ZuluEthnic groups (2014[3])80.2% Black 8.8% Coloured 8.4% White 2.5% AsianReligion See Religion in South AfricaDemonym South AfricanGovernment Unitary dominant-party parliamentary constitutional republic• PresidentCyril Ramaphosa• Deputy PresidentDavid Mabuza• Chairperson of the National Council of ProvincesThandi Modise• Speaker of the National AssemblyBaleka Mbete• Chief JusticeMogoeng MogoengLegislature Parliament• Upper houseNational Council• Lower houseNational AssemblyIndependence from the United Kingdom• Union31 May 1910• Self-governance11 December 1931• Republic31 May 1961•
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Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber
(German: [ˈhaːbɐ]; 9 December 1868 – 29 January 1934) was a German[4] chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process, a method used in industry to synthesize ammonia from nitrogen gas and hydrogen gas. This invention is of importance for the large-scale synthesis of fertilizers and explosives
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Haber-Bosch Process
The Haber process, also called the Haber–Bosch process, is an artificial nitrogen fixation process and is the main industrial procedure for the production of ammonia today.[1] It is named after its inventors, the German chemists Fritz Haber
Fritz Haber
and Carl Bosch, who developed it in the first half of the 20th century
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Nitrogen Fixation
Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.[1] Atmospheric nitrogen or molecular dinitrogen (N2) is relatively inert: it does not easily react with other chemicals to form new compounds. The fixation process frees nitrogen atoms from their triply bonded diatomic form, N≡N, to be used in other ways. Nitrogen
Nitrogen
fixation is essential for some forms of life because inorganic nitrogen compounds are required for the biosynthesis of the basic building blocks of plants, animals and other life forms, e.g., nucleotides for DNA and RNA, the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for its role in metabolism (transferring electrons between molecules), and amino acids for proteins. Therefore, as part of the nitrogen cycle, it is essential for agriculture and the manufacture of fertilizer
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