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Guangxu Emperor
Yixuan (biological) Xianfeng Emperor (uncle, symbolic, adoptive) MOTHER Yehenara Wanzhen (biological) Empress Dowager Cixi (aunt, legal, adoptive) Guangxu Emperor TRADITIONAL CHINESE 光緒帝 SIMPLIFIED CHINESE 光绪帝 TRANSCRIPTIONS STANDARD MANDARIN HANYU PINYIN Guāngxù Dì WADE–GILES Kuang1-hsu4 Ti4 IPA The GUANGXU EMPEROR (14 August 1871 – 14 November 1908), personal name ZAITIAN (Manchu : DZAI-TIYAN), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. His reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi 's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days\' Reform , but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death. His regnal name , "Guangxu", means "glorious succession"
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Hanyu Pinyin
HANYU PINYIN ROMANIZATION (simplified Chinese : 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese : 漢語拼音; literally: "Han Chinese spelling of sounds"), often abbreviated to PINYIN, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan
Taiwan
. It is often used to teach Standard (Mandarin) Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters . The system includes four diacritics denoting tones . Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet , and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang , based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Wade–Giles
WADE–GILES (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/ ), sometimes abbreviated WADE, is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese . It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade , during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles 's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect -based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hanyu Pinyin system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Chinese Era Name
A CHINESE ERA NAME is the regnal year , reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers. Some emperors have several era names, one after another, where each beginning of a new era resets the numbering of the year back to year one or yuán (元). The numbering of the year increases on the first day of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
each year. The era name originated as a motto or slogan chosen by an emperor. CONTENTS * 1 Function * 2 History
History
* 3 Era system versus Western dating system * 4 See also * 5 External links FUNCTION Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
was conventionally regarded as the first emperor to declare an era name; however he was only the first to use an era name in every year of his reign. His grandfather and father also employed era names, though not continuously
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Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects , and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Simplified Chinese Characters
SIMPLIFIED CHINESE CHARACTERS (简化字; jiǎnhuàzì) are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China . Along with traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language . The government of the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People\'s Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore
Singapore

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Dynasty
A DYNASTY (UK : /ˈdɪnəsti/ , US : /ˈdaɪnəsti/ ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics . The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house ", which may be styled as "royal ", "princely ", "ducal ", "comital ", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states , such as Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt
, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China , using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase ")
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Kwang-su (name)
KWANG-SU, also spelled KWANG-SOO or GWANG-SU, is a Korean masculine given name. Its meaning differs based on the hanja used to write each syllable of the name. CONTENTS * 1 Hanja * 2 People * 3 See also * 4 References HANJAThere are 13 hanja with the reading "kwang " and 67 hanja with the reading "soo " on the South Korean government's official list of hanja which may be registered for use in given names. Ways of writing this name in hanja include: * 光洙 (빛 광 bit gwang, 물가 수 mulga su). * 光守 (빛 광 bit gwang, 지킬 수 jikil su). These same characters are also one possible way of writing the Japanese surname and given name Mitsumori . * 光秀 (빛 광 bit gwang, 빼어날 수 bbaeeonal su). These same characters are also one possible way of writing the Japanese given name Mitsuhide
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Eunuch
The term EUNUCH (/ˈjuːnək/ ; Greek : εὐνοῦχος) generally refers to a man who has been castrated , typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences. In Latin, the words eunuchus, spado (Greek: σπάδων spadon), and castratus were used to denote eunuchs. Castration was typically carried out on the soon-to-be eunuch without his consent in order that he might perform a specific social function; this was common in many societies. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian city of Lagash in the 21st century BC. Over the millennia since, they have performed a wide variety of functions in many different cultures: courtiers or equivalent domestics , treble singers , religious specialists, soldiers, royal guards, government officials, and guardians of women or harem servants
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Memorial To The Throne
A MEMORIAL TO THE THRONE (Chinese : 章表, zhāngbiǎo) was an official communication to the Emperor of China . They were generally careful essays in Classical Chinese and their presentation was a formal affair directed by government officials. Submission of a memorial was a right theoretically available to everyone from the Crown Prince to a common farmer, but the court secretaries would read them aloud to the emperor and exercised considerable control over what was considered worthy of his time. They were used in imperial China as a means of regulating corrupt local officials who might otherwise have escaped oversight. CONTENTS * 1 Han dynasty * 2 Ming dynasty * 3 Qing dynasty * 4 See also * 5 References HAN DYNASTYUnder the Han dynasty , generally, the reception of memorials was the responsibility of the Imperial Secretary tasked with overseeing provincial administration
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Shandong
SHANDONG (Chinese : 山东; formerly romanized as SHANTUNG) is a coastal province of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, and is part of the East China
China
region. Shandong
Shandong
has played a major role in Chinese history from the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River
Yellow River
and served as a pivotal cultural and religious site for Taoism
Taoism
, Chinese Buddhism
Buddhism
, and Confucianism
Confucianism
. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism
Taoism
and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship. The Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China
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Jiaozhou Bay
The JIAOZHOU BAY (Chinese : 胶州湾; German : KIAUTSCHOU-BUCHT, 36°7′24.44″N 120°14′44.3″E / 36.1234556°N 120.245639°E / 36.1234556; 120.245639 ) is a gulf located in Qingdao
Qingdao
, China
China
. It was a German colonial concession from 1898 until 1914. Jiaozhou is the main town of the bay area, which was historically romanized as KIAOCHOW, KIAUCHAU or KIAO-CHAU in English and KIAUTSCHOU in German . CONTENTS * 1 Geography and Ecology * 2 History * 3 Connection project * 4 Notes * 5 External links GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY Jiaozhou Bay
Jiaozhou Bay
is a natural inlet of the Yellow Sea (German : Gelbes Meer), with 10 to 15 meters depth to the seabed and deeper, dredged channels to three major ports around the bay: Qingdao, Huangdao, and Hongdao, all of which are ice-free during winter
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Imperial Examination
The CHINESE IMPERIAL EXAMINATIONS were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy . Although there were imperial exams as early as the Han dynasty , the system became widely utilized as the major path to office only in the mid- Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, and remained so until its abolition in 1905. Since the exams were based on knowledge of the classics and literary style, not technical expertise, successful candidates were generalists who shared a common language and culture, one shared even by those who failed. This common culture helped to unify the empire and the ideal of achievement by merit gave legitimacy to imperial rule, while leaving clear problems resulting from a systemic lack of technical and practical expertise. The examination helped to shape China's intellectual, cultural, political, shopping, arts and crafts, and religious life
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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
) was the German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty was proclaimed the German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles . Berlin
Berlin
became its capital with the Berlin
Berlin
Palace as the Emperor's official residence. Its constitution then entered into force, and Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
became the first Chancellor
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Treaty Of Shimonoseki
The TREATY OF SHIMONOSEKI (Japanese : 下関条約, Hepburn : Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
Jōyaku) was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hall, Shimonoseki
Shimonoseki
, Japan on April 17, 1895, between the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
and the Qing Empire , ending the First Sino-Japanese War
First Sino-Japanese War
. The peace conference took place from March 20 to April 17, 1895. This treaty followed and superseded the Sino-Japanese Friendship and Trade Treaty of 1871
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Beijing Legation Quarter
The BEIJING LEGATION QUARTER was the area in Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
where a number of foreign legations were located between 1861 and 1959. In the Chinese language, the area is known as Dong Jiaomin Xiang (simplified Chinese : 东交民巷; traditional Chinese : 東交民巷; pinyin : Dōng Jiāomín Xiàng), which is the name of the hutong (lane or small street) through the area. It is located in the Dongcheng District , immediately to the east of Tiananmen Square
Tiananmen Square
. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Legation
Legation
Quarter * 3 The People\'s Republic * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links ORIGINSDuring the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
, the street was known as the Dong Jiangmi Xiang (simplified Chinese : 东江米巷; traditional Chinese : 東江米巷; pinyin : Dōng Jiāngmĭ Xiàng), or "East River-Rice Lane"
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