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Guangxu Emperor
The Guangxu Emperor
Guangxu Emperor
(14 August 1871 – 14 November 1908), personal name Zaitian (Manchu:ᡯᠠᡳ ᡨᡳᠶᠠᠨ dzai-tiyan), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China. His reign lasted from 1875 to 1908, but in practice he ruled, under Empress Dowager Cixi's influence, only from 1889 to 1898. He initiated the Hundred Days' Reform, but was abruptly stopped when the empress dowager launched a coup in 1898, after which he was put under house arrest until his death
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Kwang-su (name)
Kwang-su, also spelled Kwang-soo or Gwang-su, is a Korean masculine given name. Its meaning differs based on the hanja used to write each syllable of the name.Contents1 Hanja 2 People 3 See also 4 ReferencesHanja[edit] There are 13 hanja with the reading "kwang" and 67 hanja with the reading "soo" on the South Korean government's official list of hanja which may be registered for use in given names.[1] Ways of writing this name in hanja include:光洙 (빛 광 bit gwang, 물가 수 mulga su). 光守 (빛 광 bit gwang, 지킬 수 jikil su). These same characters are also one possible way of writing the Japanese surname
Japanese surname
and given name Mitsumori.[2] 光秀 (빛 광 bit gwang, 빼어날 수 bbaeeonal su)
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Temple Name
Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean ( Goryeo
Goryeo
and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Trần, Lý, and Lê) royalty. They should not be confused with era names. Compared to posthumous names, the use of temple names is more exclusive. Both titles were given after death to an emperor or king, but unlike the often elaborate posthumous name, a temple name almost always consists of only two characters:an adjective: chosen to reflect the circumstances of the emperor's reign (such as "Martial" or "Lamentable"). The vocabulary overlaps with that of posthumous titles' adjectives, but for one emperor, the temple name's adjective character usually does not repeat as one of the many adjective characters in his posthumous name. The usual exception is "Filial" (孝)
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Dynasty
A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdaɪnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire
Carolingian Empire
and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase")
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Manchu Name
Manchu
Manchu
names are the names of the Manchu people
Manchu people
in their own language. In addition to such names, most modern Manchus live in China
China
and possess Chinese names. Traditionally, Manchus were called only by their given names in daily life although each belonged to a clan with its own clan name (Manchu: hala). Each clan would be divided into several sub-clans (mukūn), but these did not have separate names.Contents1 Given names 2 Clan names 3 See also 4 External links 5 Notes 6 ReferencesGiven names[edit] Manchus given names are distinctive
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Manchu Alphabet
The Manchu
Manchu
alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu
Manchu
language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu
Manchu
or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Wade–Giles
Wade–Giles (/ˌweɪd ˈdʒaɪlz/), sometimes abbreviated Wade,[citation needed] is a Romanization system for Mandarin Chinese. It developed from a system produced by Thomas Wade, during the mid-19th century, and was given completed form with Herbert A. Giles's Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892. Wade–Giles was the system of transcription in the English-speaking world for most of the 20th century, used in standard reference books and in English language books published before 1979. It replaced the Nanking dialect-based romanization systems that had been common until the late 19th century, such as the Postal Romanization (still used in some place-names). In mainland China it has been entirely replaced by the Hànyǔ Pīnyīn system approved in 1958. Outside mainland China, it has mostly been replaced by Pīnyīn, even though Taiwan implements a multitude of Romanization systems in daily life
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Transliterations Of Manchu
There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by the German linguist Paul Georg von Möllendorff, BabelPad
BabelPad
transliteration (used for ease of input, not for formal transcription), the transliteration of the A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (CMCD), and Abkai Transliteration (former: Daicing Transliteration)
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Chinese Era Name
A Chinese era name is the regnal year, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperor's reign and naming certain Chinese rulers. Some emperors have several era names, one after another, where each beginning of a new era resets the numbering of the year back to year one or yuán (元). The numbering of the year increases on the first day of the Chinese calendar
Chinese calendar
each year. The era name originated as a motto or slogan chosen by an emperor.Contents1 Function 2 History 3 Era system versus Western dating system 4 See also 5 External linksFunction[edit] Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
was conventionally regarded as the first emperor to declare an era name; however he was only the first to use an era name in every year of his reign. His grandfather and father also employed era names, though not continuously
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Eunuch
The term eunuch (/ˈjuːnək/; Greek: εὐνοῦχος)[1] generally refers to a man who has been castrated,[2] typically early enough in his life for this change to have major hormonal consequences. In Latin, the words eunuchus,[3] spado (Greek: σπάδων spadon),[4][5] and castratus were used to denote eunuchs.[6] Castration
Castration
was typically carried out on the soon-to-be eunuch without his consent in order that he might perform a specific social function; this was common in many societies
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Memorial To The Throne
A memorial to the throne (Chinese: 章表, zhāngbiǎo) was an official communication to the Emperor of China. They were generally careful essays in Classical Chinese
Classical Chinese
and their presentation was a formal affair directed by government officials. Submission of a memorial was a right theoretically available to everyone from the Crown Prince to a common farmer, but the court secretaries would read them aloud to the emperor and exercised considerable control over what was considered worthy of his time. They were used in imperial China as a means of regulating corrupt local officials who might otherwise have escaped oversight.[1]Contents1 Han dynasty 2 Ming dynasty 3 Qing dynasty 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesHan dynasty[edit] Under the Han dynasty, generally, the reception of memorials was the responsibility of the Imperial Secretary tasked with overseeing provincial administration
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