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Grossglockner
The GROSSGLOCKNER (German pronunciation: ( listen ); German : Großglockner or just Glockner is, at 3,798 metres above the Adriatic (12,461 ft), the highest mountain in Austria
Austria
and the highest mountain in the Alps
Alps
east of the Brenner Pass
Brenner Pass
. It is part of the larger Glockner Group of the Hohe Tauern range, situated along the main ridge of the Central Eastern Alps
Alps
and the Alpine divide . The Pasterze , Austria's most extended glacier , lies on the Grossglockner's eastern slope. The characteristic pyramid -shaped peak actually consists of two pinnacles, the Grossglockner
Grossglockner
and the Kleinglockner (3,770 m (12,370 ft), from German: gross, "big", klein, "small"), separated by the Glocknerscharte col
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Bell (instrument)
A BELL is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument . Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone , with its sides forming an efficient resonator . The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell. Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze ) for its resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials; this depends on the function. Some small bells such as ornamental bells or cow bells can be made from cast or pressed metal, glass or ceramic, but large bells such as church, clock and tower bells are normally cast from bell metal
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Germanisation
GERMANISATION (also spelled GERMANIZATION) refers to the spread of the German language
German language
, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, at a period when conservatism and nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics , Germanisation
Germanisation
also occurs when a word from the German language
German language
is adopted into a foreign language
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Slavic Settlement Of The Eastern Alps
The settlement of the Eastern Alps region by early Slavs took place during the 6th to 8th centuries. It is part of the southward expansion of the early Slavs which would result in the characterization of the South Slavic group, and would ultimately result in the ethnogenesis of the modern Slovene people . The Eastern Alpine territories concerned comprise modern-day Slovenia
Slovenia
and large parts of modern Austria (Carinthia , Styria , East Tyrol , Lower Austria
Austria
and parts of Upper Austria
Austria
)
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Tyrol (state)
TYROL (/tɪˈroʊl, taɪ-, ˈtaɪroʊl/ ; German : Tirol, pronounced ( listen ); Italian : Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria
Austria
. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol
County of Tyrol
. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino (together with South Tyrol and Trentino
Trentino
in Italy
Italy
). The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck
Innsbruck
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Towns * 4 Transport * 5 Administrative divisions * 6 References GEOGRAPHYThe state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide (4.3 mi) strip. The larger territory is called North Tyrol (Nordtirol) and the smaller area is called East Tyrol (Osttirol)
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Belsazar Hacquet
BELSAZAR DE LA MOTTE HACQUET (also BALTHASAR OR BALTHAZAR HACQUET) (c. 1739 – January 10, 1815) was a Carniolan physician of French descent in the Enlightenment Era
Enlightenment Era
. He was a war surgeon , a surgeon in the mining town of Idrija
Idrija
, and a professor of anatomy and surgery in Laibach (now Ljubljana). He researched the geology and botany of Carniola
Carniola
, Istria
Istria
, and nearby places, and was the first explorer of the Julian Alps
Julian Alps
. He also did ethnographical work among the South Slavic peoples, particularly among the Slovene -speaking population. He self-identified primarily as a chemist and introduced the methods of chemical analysis to Carniola. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Work * 3 Publications * 4 Commemoration * 5 References * 6 External links LIFE THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION. You can help by adding to it
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Wolfgang Lazius
WOLFGANG LAZ, better known by his Latinized name WOLFGANG LAZIUS (October 31, 1514 – June 19, 1565), was an Austrian humanist who worked as a cartographer , historian , and physician . Lazius was born in Vienna
Vienna
, and first studied medicine, becoming professor in the medical faculty at the University of Vienna
Vienna
in 1541. He later became curator of the imperial collections of the Holy Roman Empire and official historian to Emperor Ferdinand I . In that capacity, he authored a number of historical works, in research for which he traveled widely, amassing (and sometimes stealing) documents from numerous monasteries and other libraries. He also produced maps of Austria, Bavaria
Bavaria
, Hungary
Hungary
, and Greece
Greece
, now considered important in the history of cartography
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Summit
A SUMMIT is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically , a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak" , and "zenith " are synonymous . CONTENTS* 1 Definition * 1.1 Western United States * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links DEFINITIONThe term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peck with some significant amount of topographic prominence (height above the lowest point end route to the nearest higher peak) or topographic isolation (distance from the nearest point of higher elevation); for example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain
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Kleinglockner
At the height of 3,770 metres (12,370 ft) the KLEINGLOCKNER is the third highest mountain in Austria
Austria
. However, with a prominence of only 17 metres it is arguable whether it can be counted as an independent mountain, or just as a subpeak of the Großglockner . It lies in the Glockner Group
Glockner Group
of Austria's Central Alps , the middle section of the Hohe Tauern . Geographically and geologically speaking, it is viewed a secondary summit of the neighbouring Großglockner, but in the literature, in view of its importance to mountaineering, it is in some cases treated as separate. Its peak forms part of the Glockner crest or ridge (Glocknerkamm) and lies exactly on the border between the Austrian state of Carinthia and Lienz District in the East Tyrol
East Tyrol

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Col
In geomorphology , a COL is the lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks . It may also be called a NOTCH, a GAP or a SADDLE , although the last-named usually has a wider meaning and may contain a mountain pass . Moreover, the term col tends to be associated more with mountain, rather than hill, ranges. The height of a summit above its highest col (called the key col ) is effectively a measure of a mountain's prominence , an important measure of the independence of its summit. Cols lie on the line of the watershed between two mountains , often on a prominent ridge or arête . Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in the terrain are usually referred to as NOTCHES. They are generally unsuitable as mountain passes , but are occasionally crossed by mule tracks or climbers' routes
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Vienna
VIENNA (/viˈɛnə/ ( listen ); German : Wien, pronounced ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria
Austria
. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city , with a population of about 1.8 million (2.6 million within the metropolitan area , nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural , economic , and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
European Union
. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I
World War I
, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin
Berlin

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Ridge
A RIDGE or MOUNTAIN RIDGE is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size. TYPESThere are several main types of ridges: * Dendritic ridge: In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges. These ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed or other chance occurrences
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Eiskögele (Glockner Group)
The EISKöGELE is a 3,426 metre high mountain in the Glockner Group in the western part of the main Tauern chain , a range of the Austrian Central Alps . It lies right on the border between the Austrian states of Salzburg , Carinthia and East Tyrol
East Tyrol
and thus forms a tripoint . The mountain has the shape of an ice-covered horn with a mighty North Face, a prominent Northeast Ridge (Nordostgrat) and a sharp firn edge (Firnschneide) to the west. From its base, the Oberwalder Hut , it is easy to reach via the Pasterzeboden glacier. It was first climbed on 30 July 1872 by the tourist B. Lergetporer from Schwaz
Schwaz
and mountain guides, Michel Groder and Josef Kerer. The first solo ascent of the mountain was achieved in August 1891 by Ludwig Kohn from Vienna as part of a crossing from the Schneewinkelkopf
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Atmospheric Refraction
ATMOSPHERIC REFRACTION is the deviation of light or other electromagnetic wave from a straight line as it passes through the atmosphere due to the variation in air density as a function of height . This refraction is due to the velocity of light through air , decreasing (the refractive index increases) with increased density. Atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric refraction
near the ground produces mirages and can make distant objects appear to shimmer or ripple , elevated or lowered, stretched or shortened , with no mirage involved. The term also applies to the refraction of sound . Atmospheric refraction
Atmospheric refraction
is considered in measuring the position of both astronomical and terrestrial objects. Astronomical or celestial refraction causes astronomical objects to appear higher in the sky than they are in reality
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Iller-Lech Plateau
The ILLER-LECH PLATEAU (German : Donau-Iller-Lech-Platte), also known as the UPPER SWABIAN PLATEAU (Oberschwäbische Hochebene), is one of the natural regions of Germany . CONTENTS * 1 Boundaries * 2 Sub-divisions * 2.1 Sub-divisions in Baden-Württemberg * 2.2 Sub-divisions in both Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria * 2.3 Sub-divisions in Bavaria * 3 See also * 4 Sources * 5 References BOUNDARIESIn the northwest the Iller-Lech Plateau
Iller-Lech Plateau
borders on the Swabian Jura (unit D60 on the map) and, in the extreme northeast, on the Franconian Jura (unit D61 on the map). The boundary with these two natural regions is roughly formed by the course of the river Danube
Danube
. In the east the Iller-Lech Plateau
Iller-Lech Plateau
borders on the Lower Bavarian Upland and Isar-Inn Gravel Plateaus (unit D65 on the map)
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Regensburg
REGENSBURG (German pronunciation: ( listen ); Latin : Castra-Regina; Czech : Řezno; French : Ratisbonne; older English: Ratisbon) is a city in south-east Germany
Germany
, situated at the confluence of the Danube
Danube
, Naab and Regen rivers. With over 140,000 inhabitants, Regensburg
Regensburg
is the fourth-largest city in the State of Bavaria
Bavaria
after Munich
Munich
, Nuremberg
Nuremberg
and Augsburg
Augsburg
. The city is the political , economic and cultural centre of Eastern Bavaria
Bavaria
and the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate
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