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Grossglockner
The Grossglockner
Grossglockner
(German pronunciation: [ˈɡʀoːsˌɡlɔknɐ] ( listen); German: Großglockner or just Glockner is, at 3,798 metres above the Adriatic (12,461 ft), the highest mountain in Austria
Austria
and the highest mountain in the Alps east of the Brenner Pass. It is part of the larger Glockner Group of the Hohe Tauern
Hohe Tauern
range, situated along the main ridge of the Central Eastern Alps
Alps
and the Alpine divide
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Summit
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a local maximum in elevation. The topographic terms "acme", "apex", "peak", and "zenith" are synonymous.Contents1 Definition1.1 Western United States 1.2 Summit
Summit
climbing equipment2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDefinition[edit] The term "top" is generally used only for a mountain peak that is located some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are often considered subsummits (or subpeaks) of the higher peak, and are considered as part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top
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Ridge
A ridge or mountain ridge is a geological feature consisting of a chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance. The line along the crest formed by the highest points, with the terrain dropping down on either side, is called the ridgeline. Ridges are usually termed hills or mountains as well, depending on size. Types[edit] There are several main types of ridges:Dendritic ridge: In typical dissected plateau terrain, the stream drainage valleys will leave intervening ridges. These are by far the most common ridges. These ridges usually represent slightly more erosion resistant rock, but not always – they often remain because there were more joints where the valleys formed or other chance occurrences
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Kleinglockner
At the height of 3,770 metres (12,370 ft) the Kleinglockner
Kleinglockner
is the third highest mountain in Austria. However, with a prominence of only 17 metres it is arguable whether it can be counted as an independent mountain, or just as a subpeak of the Großglockner. It lies in the Glockner Group of Austria's Central Alps, the middle section of the Hohe Tauern. Geographically and geologically speaking, it is viewed a secondary summit of the neighbouring Großglockner, but in the literature, in view of its importance to mountaineering, it is in some cases treated as separate
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Col
In geomorphology, a col is the lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks.[1] It may also be called a gap.[1] Particularly rugged and forbidding cols in the terrain are usually referred to as notches. They are generally unsuitable as mountain passes, but are occasionally crossed by mule tracks or climbers' routes. The term col tends to be associated more with mountain rather than hill ranges.[2] The height of a summit above its highest col (called the key col) is effectively a measure of a mountain's topographic prominence. Cols lie on the line of the watershed between two mountains, often on a prominent ridge or arête
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Vienna
Vienna
Vienna
(/viˈɛnə/ ( listen);[9][10] German: Wien, pronounced [viːn] ( listen)) is the capital and largest city of Austria
Austria
and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna
Vienna
is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.8 million[1] (2.6 million within the metropolitan area,[4] nearly one third of Austria's population), and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union
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Wolfgang Lazius
Wolfgang Laz, better known by his Latinized name Wolfgang Lazius (October 31, 1514 – June 19, 1565),[1] was an Austrian humanist who worked as a cartographer, historian, and physician. Lazius was born in Vienna, and first studied medicine, becoming professor in the medical faculty at the University of Vienna
Vienna
in 1541.[1] He later became curator of the imperial collections of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
and official historian to Emperor Ferdinand I
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Belsazar Hacquet
Belsazar de la Motte Hacquet (also Balthasar or Balthazar Hacquet) (c. 1739 – January 10, 1815) was a Carniolan physician of French descent in the Enlightenment Era. He was a war surgeon, a surgeon in the mining town of Idrija, and a professor of anatomy and surgery in Laibach (now Ljubljana). He researched the geology and botany of Carniola, Istria, and nearby places, and was the first explorer of the Julian Alps. He also did ethnographical work among the South Slavic peoples, particularly among the Slovene-speaking population. He self-identified primarily as a chemist and introduced the methods of chemical analysis to Carniola.Contents1 Life 2 Work 3 Publications 4 Commemoration 5 References 6 External linksLife[edit]This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2012)Hacquet was mysterious about the time and place of his birth and the two have remained uncertain, although sources agree that he was an illegitimate child
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Bell (instrument)
A bell is a directly struck idiophone percussion instrument. Most bells have the shape of a hollow cup that when struck vibrates in a single strong strike tone, with its sides forming an efficient resonator. The strike may be made by an internal "clapper" or "uvula", an external hammer, or—in small bells—by a small loose sphere enclosed within the body of the bell (jingle bell). Bells are usually cast from bell metal (a type of bronze) for its resonant properties, but can also be made from other hard materials; this depends on the function
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Germanisation
Germanisation
Germanisation
(also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, at a period when conservatism and nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics, Germanisation
Germanisation
also occurs when a word from the German language
German language
is adopted into a foreign language. Under the policies of states such as Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
state (who arrived from the Holy Roman Empire), Austria, the German Empire, and Nazi Germany, non-Germans were often banned from use of their language,[1] the state discriminated their traditions and culture. When those measures were not successful in eradicating non-Germans, colonists and settlers were used to upset the population balance. With Germanisation (e.g
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Slavic Settlement Of The Eastern Alps
The settlement of the Eastern Alps
Eastern Alps
region by early Slavs took place during the 6th to 8th centuries. It is part of the southward expansion of the early Slavs which would result in the characterization of the South Slavic group, and would ultimately result in the ethnogenesis of the modern Slovene people
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Tyrol (state)
Tyrol
Tyrol
(/tɪˈroʊl, taɪ-, ˈtaɪroʊl/; German: Tirol, pronounced [tiˈʀoːl] ( listen); Italian: Tirolo) is a federal state (Bundesland) in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino
Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino
(together with South Tyrol
South Tyrol
and Trentino
Trentino
in Italy). The capital of Tyrol
Tyrol
is Innsbruck.[1]Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Towns 4 Transport 5 Administrative divisions 6 See also 7 ReferencesGeography[edit] The state of Tyrol
Tyrol
is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide (4.3 mi) strip. The larger territory is called North Tyrol
North Tyrol
(Nordtirol) and the smaller area is called East Tyrol (Osttirol)
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Eiskögele (Glockner Group)
The Eiskögele
Eiskögele
is a 3,426 metre high mountain in the Glockner Group in the western part of the main Tauern chain, a range of the Austrian Central Alps. It lies right on the border between the Austrian states of Salzburg, Carinthia and East Tyrol
East Tyrol
and thus forms a tripoint. The mountain has the shape of an ice-covered horn with a mighty North Face, a prominent Northeast Ridge (Nordostgrat) and a sharp firn edge (Firnschneide) to the west. From its base, the Oberwalder Hut, it is easy to reach via the Pasterzeboden glacier. It was first climbed on 30 July 1872 by the tourist B. Lergetporer from Schwaz
Schwaz
and mountain guides, Michel Groder and Josef Kerer
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Glacier
A glacier (US: /ˈɡleɪʃər/ or UK: /ˈɡlæsiə/) is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water. On Earth, 99% of glacial ice is contained within vast ice sheets in the polar regions, but glaciers may be found in mountain ranges on every continent including Oceania's high-latitude oceanic islands such as New Zealand
New Zealand
and Papua New Guinea
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Drainage Divide
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline,[1] watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins. On rugged land, the divide lies along topographical ridges, and may be in the form of a single range of hills or mountains, known as a dividing range
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Side Valley
A side valley and a tributary valley are valleys whose brook or river flows into a greater one. Upstream, the valleys can be classified in an increasing order which is equivalent to the usual orographic order: the tributaries are ordered from those nearest to the source of the river to those nearest to the mouth of the river. A confluence is where two or more tributaries or rivers flow together.Contents1 Orographic order
Orographic order
(e.g. Humber) 2 Basic facts of geomorphology2.1 Hanging valleys3 Shape of side valleys 4 Miscellaneous 5 References Orographic order
Orographic order
(e.g. Humber)[edit] In the orographic classification (order of rivers) the tributary river has order n+1, if n describes the primary (or main) river. A river which flows directly into the ocean (e.g
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