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Grodno
Grodno
Grodno
or Hrodna (Belarusian: Гродна, Hrodna [ˈɣrɔdna]; Russian: Гродно, tr. Grodno, IPA: [ˈɡrodnə], see also other names) is a city in western Belarus. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
(about 20 km (12 mi) and 30 km (19 mi) away respectively). It has 365,610 inhabitants (2016 census)
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Primary Chronicle
The Tale of Past Years (Old East Slavic: Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle
Primary Chronicle
is a history of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev
Kiev
about 1113.[1] The work is considered to be a fundamental source in the interpretation of the history of the Eastern Slavs.Contents1 Three editions1.1 First 1.2 Second 1.3 Third2 Two manuscripts 3 Assessment 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksThree editions[edit] First[edit]The Historian Nestor by Leo Mol[2]Tradition long regarded the original compilation as the work of a monk named Nestor (c. 1056 – c. 1114); hence scholars spoke of Nestor's Chronicle or of Nestor's manuscript
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Teutonic Knights
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem[2] (official names: Latin: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German: Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order
Catholic religious order
founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church,[1] also known as the Orthodox Church,[2] or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church,[3] is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.[4][5] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern Europe, Greece
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Boris And Gleb
Eastern Orthodox Church Eastern Catholic ChurchesOld believersCanonized 1071Major shrine VyshhorodFeast July 24 (Martyrdom) May 3 (Translation of Relics)Attributes Two young princes, holding swords or spears, or the cross of martyrsBoris Prince
Prince
of RostovReign 1010–1015Predecessor Yaroslav the WiseBorn 986Died 1015 KievBurial Church of St. Basil, VyshhorodFull nameBoris VladimirovichHouse Riurik DynastyFather Vladimir I of KievMother AdelaGleb Prince
Prince
of MuromReign 1013–1015Born 987Died 1015Burial Church of St
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Slavic Peoples
Slavs
Slavs
are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group. They are native to Eurasia, stretching from Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe
Europe
all the way north and westwards to Northeast Europe
Europe
, Northern Asia (Siberia), the Caucasus, and Central Asia (especially Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Turkmenistan) as well as historically in Western Europe
Europe
(particularly in East Germany) and Western Asia (including Anatolia)
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Yaroslav The Wise
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus', known as Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
or Iaroslav the Wise (Old East Slavic: Ꙗрославъ Володимѣровичъ Мѫдрꙑи; Russian: Яросла́в Му́дрый, translit. Jaroslav Mudryj [jɪrɐˈslaf ˈmudrɨj]; Ukrainian: Яросла́в Му́дрий, translit. Jaroslav Mudryj [jɐroˈslɑu̯ ˈmudrɪj]; Old Norse: Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;[1]; Latin: Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod
and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri) after Saint George
Saint George
(Old East Slavic: Гюрьгi, Gjurĭgì). A son of Vladimir the Great, the first Christian Prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav acted as vice-regent of Novgorod
Novgorod
at the time of his father's death in 1015
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Magdeburg Law
Magdeburg
Magdeburg
rights (German: Magdeburger Recht; also called Magdeburg Law) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–973) and based on the Flemish law,[1] which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a European state from the 13th century[1] until 1795,[2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija.[3][4][5] The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine, Poland
Poland
and Russia
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Lithuanians
Lithuanians
Lithuanians
(Lithuanian: lietuviai, singular lietuvis/lietuvė) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,561,300 people.[3] Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Ireland. Their native language is Lithuanian, one of only two surviving members of the Baltic language
Baltic language
family. According to the census conducted in 2001, 83.45% of the population of Lithuania identified themselves as Lithuanians, 6.74% as Poles, 6.31% as Russians, 1.23% as Belarusians, and 2.27% as members of other ethnic groups
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Rurikid
The Rurik
Rurik
dynasty, or Rurikids (Russian: Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Ukrainian: Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Belarusian: Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian[1] prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod
Novgorod
around the year AD 862.[2] The Rurikids were the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
(after 882), as well as the successor principalities of Galicia-Volhynia
Galicia-Volhynia
(after 1199), Chernigov, Vladimir-Suzdal, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, and the founders of the Tsardom of Russia. They ruled until 1610 and the Time of Troubles, following which they were succeeded by the Romanovs
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Mindaugas
Mindaugas
Mindaugas
(German: Myndowen, Latin: Mindowe, Old East Slavic: Мендог, Belarusian: Міндоўг, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the only King of Lithuania. Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 treaty as an elder duke, and in 1236 as the leader of all the Lithuanians. The contemporary and modern sources discussing his ascent mention strategic marriages along with banishment or murder of his rivals. He extended his domain into regions southeast of Lithuania proper
Lithuania proper
during the 1230s and 1240s. In 1250 or 1251, during the course of internal power struggles, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic; this action enabled him to establish an alliance with the Livonian Order, a long-standing antagonist of the Lithuanians
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Prussian Uprising
The Prussian uprisings
Prussian uprisings
were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians, one of the Baltic tribes, against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade. The crusading military order, supported by the Popes and Christian Europe, sought to conquer and convert the pagan Prussians. In the first ten years of the crusade five of the seven major Prussian clans fell under the control of the less numerous Teutonic Knights. However, the Prussians rose against their conquerors on five occasions. The first uprising was supported by Duke Swietopelk II, Duke of Pomerania. The Prussians were successful at first, reducing the Knights to only five of their strongest castles. Conversely, the duke suffered a series of military defeats and was eventually forced to make peace with the Teutonic Knights
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Old Prussians
Old Prussians
Old Prussians
or Baltic Prussians (Old Prussian: Prūsai; German: Pruzzen or Prußen; Latin: Pruteni; Latvian: Prūši; Lithuanian: Prūsai; Polish: Prusowie; Kashubian: Prësowié) refers to the indigenous peoples from a cluster of Baltic tribes that inhabited the region of Prussia. This region became the core of the later state of Prussia. It was located on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea between the Vistula Lagoon
Vistula Lagoon
to the west and the Curonian Lagoon
Curonian Lagoon
to the east. The people spoke a language now known as Old Prussian
Old Prussian
and followed pagan Prussian mythology. During the 13th century, the Old Prussians
Old Prussians
were conquered by the Teutonic Knights. The former German state of Prussia
Prussia
took its name from the Baltic Prussians, although it was led by Germans
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Vytautas
Vytautas
Vytautas
(c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great (Lithuanian:   Vytautas
Vytautas
Didysis (help·info), Belarusian: Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Polish: Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn: Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century
15th century
onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians and Ruthenians. He was also the Prince of Hrodna
Hrodna
(1370–1382), Prince of Lutsk
Lutsk
(1387~1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites.[1] In modern Lithuania, Vytautas
Vytautas
is revered as a national hero and was an important figure in the national rebirth in the 19th century. Vytautas is a popular male given name in Lithuania
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Battle Of Grunwald
Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish–Lithuanian vassals, allies and mercenaries:[1] Czechs, Bohemia,[1] Moravia,[1] Ruthenia,[2] Masovia,[3] Moldavia,[4] Tatars,[2] Wallachia,[5] Smolensk Teutonic Order Allies (Pomerania-Stettin), guest crusaders, and mercenaries from western EuropeCommanders and leadersKing of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, supreme commander[1] Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great, Lithuanian commanderGrandmaster Ulrich von Jungingen †Strength16,000–39,000 men[6] 11,000–27,000 men[6]Casualties and lossesUnknown (light) Very heavy: 203–211 out of 270 Teutonic knights killed[7]Battle site on a map of modern Polandv t ePolish–Lithuanian– Teutonic WarGrunwald Marienburg KoronowoThe Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
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