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Grodno
GRODNO or HRODNA (Belarusian : Гродна, Hrodna ; Russian : Гродно, tr. Grodno; IPA: , see also other names ) is a city in western Belarus
Belarus
. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
(about 20 km (12 mi) and 30 km (19 mi) away respectively). It has 365,610 inhabitants (2016 census). It is the capital of Grodno Region and Grodno District
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Yaroslav The Wise
YAROSLAV I, GRAND PRINCE OF RUS\', known as YAROSLAV THE WISE or IAROSLAV THE WISE ( Old East Slavic : Ꙗрославъ Володимировичъ Мѫдрꙑи, Jaroslavŭ Volodimirovičŭ Mǫdryi; Old Norse : Jarizleifr Valdamarsson; Russian : Яросла́в Му́дрый, Yaroslav Mudry; Ukrainian : Ярослав Мудрий, Yaroslav Mudriy; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod
Veliky Novgorod
and Kiev
Kiev
, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. Yaroslav's Christian name was George (Yuri ) after Saint George ( Old East Slavic : Гюрьгi, Gjurĭgì). A son of Vladimir the Great , the first Christian Prince of Novgorod, Yaroslav acted as vice-regent of Novgorod
Novgorod
at the time of his father's death in 1015
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Grand Duchy Of Lithuania
2. Internationally recognized as part of Moldova
Moldova
. The GRAND DUCHY OF LITHUANIA was a European state from the 13th century until 1795. The state was founded by the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija . The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus\' and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus
Belarus
, parts of Ukraine
Ukraine
, Poland
Poland
and Russia
Russia
. At its greatest extent in the 15th century, it was the largest state in Europe. It was a multi-ethnic and multi-confessional state with great diversity in languages, religion, and cultural heritage
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Teutonic Knights
The ORDER OF BROTHERS OF THE GERMAN HOUSE OF SAINT MARY IN JERUSALEM (official names: Latin
Latin
: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, German : Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the TEUTONIC ORDER (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre , Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Purely religious since 1929, it still confers limited honorary knighthoods . The order was formed to aid Christians
Christians
on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land
Holy Land
and to establish hospitals
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Slavic Peoples
SLAVS are the largest Indo-European ethno-linguistic group in Europe . They are native to Central Europe
Europe
, Eastern Europe
Europe
, Southeastern Europe
Europe
, Northeastern Europe
Europe
, North Asia , Central Asia
Central Asia
and West Asia . Slavs
Slavs
speak Slavic languages
Slavic languages
of the Balto-Slavic language group. From the early 6th century they spread to inhabit most of Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe. States with Slavic languages
Slavic languages
comprise over 50% of the territory of Europe, therefore it is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe by land area
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Boris And Gleb
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Eastern Catholic Churches
Old believers
Old believers
CANONIZED 1071 MAJOR SHRINE Vyshhorod
Vyshhorod
FEAST July 24 (Martyrdom ) May 3 (Translation of Relics ) ATTRIBUTES Two young princes , holding swords or spears, or the cross of martyrs BORIS Prince
Prince
of Rostov
Rostov
REIGN 1010–1015 PREDECESSOR Yaroslav the Wise
Yaroslav the Wise
BORN 986 DIED 1015 Kiev
Kiev
BURIAL Church of St
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Prince
A PRINCE is a male ruler or member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. Prince
Prince
is also a title of nobility , often hereditary , in some European states . The feminine equivalent is a princess . The English word derives, via the French word prince, from the Latin
Latin
noun princeps , from primus (first) + capio (to seize), meaning "the chief, most distinguished, ruler , prince"
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Balts
Pontic Steppe * Domestication of the horse * Kurgan * Kurgan culture * Steppe cultures * Bug-Dniester * Sredny Stog * Dnieper-Donets * Samara * Khvalynsk * Yamna * Mikhaylovka culture Caucasus * Maykop East-Asia * Afanasevo Eastern Europe * Usatovo * Cernavodă * Cucuteni Northern Europe* Corded ware * Bad
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Orthodox Church
The EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH, also known as the ORTHODOX CHURCH, or officially as the ORTHODOX CATHOLIC CHURCH, is the second-largest Christian church and one of the oldest extant religious institutions in the world. The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church established by Jesus
Jesus
Christ in his Great Commission to the apostles. It practices what it understands to be the original Christian faith and maintains the sacred tradition passed down from the apostles . The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church is a communion of autocephalous churches , each typically governed by a Holy Synod . It teaches that all bishops are equal by virtue of their ordination , and has no central governing structure analogous to the Papacy in the Roman Catholic Church
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Mindaugas
MINDAUGAS (German : Myndowen, Latin : Mindowe, Old East Slavic : Мендог — Mendog, Belarusian : Міндоўг or Mindoūh, c. 1203 – autumn 1263) was the first known Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
and the only King of Lithuania . Little is known of his origins, early life, or rise to power; he is mentioned in a 1219 treaty as an elder duke, and in 1236 as the leader of all the Lithuanians. The contemporary and modern sources discussing his ascent mention strategic marriages along with banishment or murder of his rivals. He extended his domain into regions southeast of Lithuania proper
Lithuania proper
during the 1230s and 1240s. In 1250 or 1251, during the course of internal power struggles, he was baptised as a Roman Catholic; this action enabled him to establish an alliance with the Livonian Order
Livonian Order
, a long-standing antagonist of the Lithuanians
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Prussian Uprising
The PRUSSIAN UPRISINGS were two major and three smaller uprisings by the Prussians , one of the Baltic tribes , against the Teutonic Knights that took place in the 13th century during the Prussian Crusade . The crusading military order , supported by the Popes and Christian Europe, sought to conquer and convert the pagan Prussians. In the first ten years of the crusade five of the seven major Prussian clans fell under the control of the less numerous Teutonic Knights. However, the Prussians rose against their conquerors on five occasions. The first uprising was supported by Duke Swietopelk II, Duke of Pomerania . The Prussians were successful at first, reducing the Knights to only five of their strongest castles. Conversely, the duke suffered a series of military defeats and was eventually forced to make peace with the Teutonic Knights
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Powiat
A POWIAT (pronounced ; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland
Poland
, equivalent to a county , district or prefecture (LAU-1 , formerly NUTS-4 ) in other countries. The term "powiat" is most often translated into English as "county". A powiat is part of a larger unit, the voivodeship (Polish województwo) or province . A powiat is usually subdivided into gmina s (in English, often referred to as "communes " or "municipalities "). Major towns and cities, however, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas. They are termed "city counties" (powiaty grodzkie or, more formally, miasta na prawach powiatu) and have roughly the same status as former county boroughs in the UK . The other type of powiats are termed "land counties" (powiaty ziemskie). As of 2008, there were 379 powiat-level entities: 314 land counties, and 65 city counties
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Jew
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 Yhudim, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
. Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism
Judaism
is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews
Jews
originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant
Levant
known as the Land of Israel
Israel

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Magdeburg Law
MAGDEBURG RIGHTS (German : Magdeburger Recht; also MAGDEBURG LAW) were a set of town privileges first developed by Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor (936–73) and based on the Flemish law, which regulated the degree of internal autonomy within cities and villages, granted by the local ruler. Named after the German city of Magdeburg
Magdeburg
, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe thus far. They became the basis for the German town laws developed during many centuries in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Even more importantly, adopted and modified by numerous monarchs including the rulers of Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland, the laws were a milestone in urbanization of the entire region and prompted the development of thousands of villages and cities
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Battle Of Grunwald
Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish–Lithuanian vassals, allies and mercenaries: Czechs , Bohemia
Bohemia
, Moravia ,
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Vytautas
VYTAUTAS (c. 1350 – October 27, 1430), also known as VYTAUTAS THE GREAT (Lithuanian : Vytautas
Vytautas
Didysis (help ·info ), Belarusian : Вітаўт Кейстутавіч (Vitaŭt Kiejstutavič), Polish : Witold Kiejstutowicz, Rusyn : Vitovt, Latin: Alexander Vitoldus) from the 15th century onwards, was a ruler of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , which chiefly encompassed the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians . He was also the Prince of Hrodna (1370–1382), Prince of Lutsk (1387~1389), and the postulated king of the Hussites
Hussites
. In modern Lithuania
Lithuania
, Vytautas
Vytautas
is revered as a national hero and was an important figure in the national rebirth in the 19th century. Vytautas
Vytautas
is a popular male given name in Lithuania
Lithuania

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