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Green River Formation
The Green River Formation
Green River Formation
is an Eocene
Eocene
geologic formation that records the sedimentation in a group of intermountain lakes in three basins along the present-day Green River in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. The sediments are deposited in very fine layers, a dark layer during the growing season and a light-hue inorganic layer in the dry season. Each pair of layers is called a varve and represents one year. The sediments of the Green River Formation
Green River Formation
present a continuous record of six million years. The mean thickness of a varve here is 0.18 mm, with a minimum thickness of 0.014 mm and maximum of 9.8 mm.[1] The sedimentary layers were formed in a large area named for the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado
Colorado
River
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Geochronology
Geochronology
Geochronology
is the science of determining the age of rocks, fossils, and sediments using signatures inherent in the rocks themselves. Absolute geochronology can be accomplished through radioactive isotopes, whereas relative geochronology is provided by tools such as palaeomagnetism and stable isotope ratios. By combining multiple geochronological (and biostratigraphic) indicators the precision of the recovered age can be improved. Geochronology
Geochronology
is different in application from biostratigraphy, which is the science of assigning sedimentary rocks to a known geological period via describing, cataloguing and comparing fossil floral and faunal assemblages. Biostratigraphy
Biostratigraphy
does not directly provide an absolute age determination of a rock, but merely places it within an interval of time at which that fossil assemblage is known to have coexisted
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Wasatch Mountains
The Wasatch Range
Wasatch Range
(/ˈwɑːsætʃ/ WAH-satch) is a mountain range that stretches approximately 160 miles (260 km) from the Utah-Idaho border, south through central Utah
Utah
in the western United States
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Intermontane Plateaus
The Intermontane Plateaus of the Western United States
Western United States
is one of eight U.S. Physiographic regions (divisions) of the physical geography of the contiguous United States. The region is composed of intermontane plateaus and mountain ranges
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Sevier Orogeny
The Sevier orogeny
Sevier orogeny
was a mountain-building event that affected western North America
North America
from Canada to the north to Mexico
Mexico
to the south. The Sevier orogeny
Sevier orogeny
was the result of convergent boundary tectonic activity between approximately 140 million years (Ma) ago and 50 Ma. The Sevier River
Sevier River
area of central Utah
Utah
is the namesake of this event. This orogeny was produced by the subduction of the oceanic Farallon Plate underneath the continental North American Plate
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Laramide Orogeny
The Laramide orogeny
Laramide orogeny
was a period of mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago, and ended 35 to 55 million years ago. The exact duration and ages of beginning and end of the orogeny are in dispute. The Laramide orogeny
Laramide orogeny
occurred in a series of pulses, with quiescent phases intervening
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Wind River Mountains
The Wind River Range
Wind River Range
(or "Winds" for short), is a mountain range of the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in western Wyoming
Wyoming
in the United States. The range runs roughly NW-SE for approximately 100 miles (161 km). The Continental Divide
Continental Divide
follows the crest of the range and includes Gannett Peak, which at 13,804 feet (4,207 m), is the highest peak in Wyoming. There are more than 40 other named peaks in excess of 13,000 feet (3,962 m). With the exception of the Grand Teton in the Teton Range, the next 19 highest peaks in Wyoming
Wyoming
after Gannett are also in the Winds.[1] Two large National Forests including three wilderness areas encompass most of the mountain range
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Front Range
The Front Range
Front Range
is a mountain range of the Southern Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
of North America located in the central portion of the U.S. State of Colorado, and southeastern portion of the U.S. State of Wyoming.[1] It is the first mountain range encountered as one goes westbound along the 40th parallel north
40th parallel north
across the Great Plains
Great Plains
of North America. The Front Range
Front Range
runs north-south between Casper, Wyoming
Wyoming
and Pueblo, Colorado
Colorado
and rises nearly 10,000 feet above the Great Plains. Longs Peak, Mount Evans, and Pikes Peak
Pikes Peak
are its most prominent peaks, visible from the Interstate 25
Interstate 25
corridor
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Park Range (Colorado)
The Park Range, elevation approximately 12,000 feet (3,700 m), is a mountain range in the Rocky Mountains of northwestern Colorado in the United States. The range forms a relatively isolated part of the Continental Divide, extending north-to-south for approximately 40 miles (64 km) along the boundary between Jackson (east) and Routt counties. It separates North Park in the upper basin of the North Platte River on the east from the Elk River basin in the watershed of the Yampa River the west. It rises steeply out of the Yampa River basin, forming a climatic barrier that receives much snowfall in winter. The northern end of the range lies in Wyoming and is known as the Sierra Madre Range. Steamboat Springs, a popular ski resort community, sits on the southwestern flank of the range, at the base of Mount Werner
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Sawatch Range
The Sawatch Range
Sawatch Range
/səˈwætʃ/[1][2] is a high and extensive mountain range in central Colorado
Colorado
which includes eight of the twenty highest peaks in the Rocky Mountains, including Mount Elbert, at 14,440 feet (4,401 m) elevation, the highest peak in the Rockies. The range is oriented along a northwest-southeast axis, extending approximately 80 miles (130 km) from 39°37′36″N 106°32′13″W / 39.62667°N 106.53694°W / 39.62667; -106.53694 in the north to 38°5′51″N 106°3′48″W / 38.09750°N 106.06333°W / 38.09750; -106.06333 in the south. The range contains 15 peaks topping 14,000 feet (4,267 m), also known as 14ers. The range forms a portion of the Continental Divide, and its eastern flanks are drained by the headwaters of the Arkansas River
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Uncompahgre Plateau
The Uncompahgre Plateau
Uncompahgre Plateau
in western Colorado
Colorado
is a distinctive large uplift part of the Colorado
Colorado
Plateau. Uncompahgre is a Ute Indian word that describes the water: "Dirty Water" or "Rocks that make Water Red".[1] The plateau, with an average elevation of 9,500 feet (2,900 m), rises from the Colorado
Colorado
River 4,600 ft (1,400 m) to Horsefly Peak 10,300 ft (3,100 m). It continues on about 90 miles (140 km) southeast to the northwest margin of the San Juan Mountains. Its boundaries are the San Miguel and Dolores Rivers to the west, the Colorado
Colorado
River to the north and the Gunnison and Uncompahgre Rivers on the eastern side.[1] Large canyons such as Big Red, Tabeguache, Spring Creek, Roubideau, Escalante, Big Dominquez, and Unaweep are separated by generally flat mesas
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San Juan Mountains
The San Juan Mountains
San Juan Mountains
are a high and rugged mountain range in the Rocky Mountains
Rocky Mountains
in southwestern Colorado
Colorado
and northwestern New Mexico. The area is highly mineralized (the Colorado
Colorado
Mineral
Mineral
Belt) and figured in the gold and silver mining industry of early Colorado. Major towns, all old mining camps, include Creede, Lake City, Silverton, Ouray, and Telluride. Large scale mining has ended in the region, although independent prospectors still work claims throughout the range. The last large scale mines were the Sunnyside Mine near Silverton, which operated until late in the 20th century and the Idarado Mine
Idarado Mine
on Red Mountain Pass that closed down in the 1970s
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Lithology
The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.[1][2][3] It may be either a detailed description of these characteristics or be a summary of the gross physical character of a rock.[4] It is the basis of subdividing rock sequences into individual lithostratigraphic units for the purposes of mapping and correlation between areas. In certain applications, such as site investigations, lithology is described using a standard terminology such as in the European geotechnical standard Eurocode 7.Contents1 Rock type 2 Grain/clast size 3 Mineralogy 4 Colour 5 Fabric 6 Texture 7 Small-scale structures 8 Surficial lithology 9 ReferencesRock type[edit]A basalt, showing the 'pillow' lava shape characteristic of underwater eruptions, ItalyThe naming of a lithology is based on the rock type
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Uinta Mountains
The Uinta Mountains
Uinta Mountains
(/juːˈɪntə/ yoo-IN-tə) are an east-west trending chain of mountains in northeastern Utah
Utah
extending slightly into southern Wyoming
Wyoming
in the United States. As a subrange of the Rocky Mountains, they are unusual for being the highest range in the contiguous United States
United States
running east to west,[1] and lie approximately 100 miles (160 km) east of Salt Lake City. The range has peaks ranging from 11,000–13,528 feet (3,353–4,123 m), with the highest point being Kings Peak, also the highest point in Utah
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Sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone
is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because they are the most resistant minerals to weathering processes at the Earth's surface, as seen in Bowen's reaction series. Like uncemented sand, sandstone may be any color due to impurities within the minerals, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white, and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, certain colors of sandstone have been strongly identified with certain regions. Rock formations that are primarily composed of sandstone usually allow the percolation of water and other fluids and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers and petroleum reservoirs
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Mudstone
Mudstone, a type of mudrock, is a fine-grained sedimentary rock whose original constituents were clays or muds. Grain size is up to 0.063 millimetres (0.0025 in)[1] with individual grains too small to be distinguished without a microscope. With increased pressure over time, the platey clay minerals may become aligned, with the appearance of fissility or parallel layering. This finely bedded material that splits readily into thin layers is called shale, as distinct from mudstone. The lack of fissility or layering in mudstone may be due to either original texture or the disruption of layering by burrowing organisms in the sediment prior to lithification
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