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Greek Philosophers
Ancient Greek philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy
arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire. Philosophy
Philosophy
was used to make sense out of the world in a non-religious way. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics.[citation needed] Many philosophers around the world agree that Greek philosophy has influenced much of Western culture
Western culture
since its inception
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The School Of Athens
The School of Athens
The School of Athens
(Italian: Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace
Apostolic Palace
in the Vatican
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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Milesian School
The Milesian school
Milesian school
was a school of thought founded in the 6th century BC. The ideas associated with it are exemplified by three philosophers from the Ionian town of Miletus, on the Aegean coast of Asia Minor: Thales, Anaximander, and Anaximenes. They introduced new opinions contrary to the prevailing belief of how the world was organized, in which natural phenomena were explained solely by the will of anthropomorphized gods. The Milesians conceived of nature in terms of methodologically observable entities, and as such was one of the first truly scientific philosophies. Note: It is important to make a distinction between the Milesian school and the Ionian, which includes the philosophies of both the Milesians and other distinctly different Ionian thinkers such as Heraclitus
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Hermann Alexander Diels
Hermann Alexander Diels (German: [diːls]; May 18, 1848 – June 4, 1922) was a German classical scholar.Contents1 Biography 2 Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker 3 Major works 4 Notes and references 5 External linksBiography[edit] He was educated at the universities of Bonn and Berlin and in 1886 became professor ordinarius of classical philology at the latter institution. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker[edit] See also: Diels–Kranz numbering He is now known for a collection of quotations from and reports about Presocratic
Presocratic
philosophers.[a] This work, entitled Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker (The Fragments of the Pre-Socratics), is still widely used by scholars. It was first published in 1903, was later revised and expanded three times by Diels, and was finally revised in a 5th edition (1934–7) by Walther Kranz and again in a sixth edition (1952)
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Philosophers
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science.[1] The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek φιλόσοφος (philosophos) meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(6th century BC).[2] In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, and not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors.[3] Typically, these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, and reexamines the old ways of thought
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Cosmogony
Cosmogony
Cosmogony
(or cosmogeny) is any model concerning the origin of either the cosmos or universe.[1][2] Developing a complete theoretical model has implications in both the philosophy of science and epistemology.Contents1 Etymology 2 Overview 3 Compared with cosmology 4 Theoretical scenarios 5 See also 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The word comes from the Koine Greek
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John Burnet (classicist)
John Burnet, FBA (/bərˈnɛt, ˈbɜːrnɪt/; 9 December 1863 – 26 May 1928) was a Scottish classicist. He was born in Edinburgh
Edinburgh
and died in St Andrews.[1]Contents1 Life and work1.1 Early Greek Philosophy2 Legacy 3 Bibliography3.1 Major works 3.2 Editions edited and annotated by Burnet4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksLife and work[edit] Burnet was educated at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, the University of Edinburgh, and Balliol College, Oxford, receiving his M.A. degree in 1887. In 1887 Burnet became an assistant to Lewis Campbell at the University of St. Andrews. From 1890 to 1915, he was a Fellow at Merton College, Oxford; he was a professor of Latin at Edinburgh; from 1892 to 1926, he was Professor of Greek at the University of St. Andrews. He became a Fellow of the British Academy in 1916
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Cosmos
The cosmos (UK: /ˈkɒzmɒs/, US: /-moʊs/) is the universe regarded as a complex and orderly system; the opposite of chaos.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Cosmology2.1 Philosophical cosmology 2.2 Physical cosmology 2.3 Religious cosmology3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit] The philosopher Pythagoras
Pythagoras
first used the term cosmos (Ancient Greek: κόσμος) for the order of the universe.[2][3] The term became part of modern language in the 19th century when geographer–polymath
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Theology
Theology
Theology
is the critical study of the nature of the divine
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Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael
Raphael
(/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo
Michelangelo
and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael
Raphael
was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career
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Martin Litchfield West
Martin Litchfield West, OM, FBA (23 September 1937 – 13 July 2015) was a British classical scholar. He wrote on ancient Greek music, Greek tragedy, Greek lyric
Greek lyric
poetry, the relations between Greece and the ancient Near East, and the connection between shamanism and early ancient Greek religion, including the Orphic tradition
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Ancient Near East
Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire Assyria Babylonia Neo-Assyrian Empire Neo-Babylonian Empire SumerEgyptAncient EgyptPersiaAchaemenid Empire Elam MedesAnatoliaHittites Hurrians Neo-Hittite
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Renaissance
The Renaissance
Renaissance
(UK: /rɪˈneɪsəns/, US: /rɛnəˈsɑːns/)[1] is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is an extension of the Middle Ages, and is bridged by the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
to modern history. It grew in fragments, with the very first traces found seemingly in Italy, coming to cover much of Europe, for some scholars marking the beginning of the modern age. The intellectual basis of the Renaissance
Renaissance
was its own invented version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, architecture, politics, science and literature
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Solar Eclipse
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon
Moon
passes between the Sun
Sun
and Earth, and when the Moon
Moon
fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun. This can happen only at new moon when the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
are in conjunction as seen from Earth
Earth
in an alignment referred to as syzygy. In a total eclipse, the disk of the Sun
Sun
is fully obscured by the Moon. In partial and annular eclipses, only part of the Sun
Sun
is obscured. If the Moon
Moon
were in a perfectly circular orbit, a little closer to the Earth, and in the same orbital plane, there would be total solar eclipses every new moon
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