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Greco-Persian Wars
Greek city-states : * Athens * Sparta
Sparta
* Thespiae
Thespiae
* Thebes * Various other Greek city-statesOther Greek states and Leagues: *
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Boeotia
BOEOTIA, sometimes alternatively Latinised as BOIOTIA, or BEOTIA (/biːˈoʊʃiə/ or /biːˈoʊʃə/ ; Greek : Βοιωτία, Modern Greek: , Ancient Greek: ; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece
Greece
. It is part of the region of Central Greece
Greece
. It was also a region of ancient Greece
Greece
. Its capital is Livadeia , and its largest city is Thebes
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Ancient Thessaly
THESSALY or THESSALIA ( Attic Greek
Attic Greek
: Θεσσαλία, Thessalía Aeolic Greek
Aeolic Greek
(Thessalian) : Πετθαλία, Petthalia) was one of the traditional regions of Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
. During the Mycenaean period , Thessaly was known as Aeolia, a name that continued to be used for one of the major tribes of Greece, the Aeolians , and their dialect of Greek, Aeolic . CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 3 Ancient coinage of Thessaly * 4 References GEOGRAPHYAt its greatest extent, ancient Thessaly was a wide area stretching from Mount Olympos
Mount Olympos
to the north to the Spercheios
Spercheios
Valley to the south. Thessaly is a geographically diverse region consisting of broad central plains surrounded by mountains
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Halicarnassus
HALICARNASSUS (/ˌhælᵻ.kɑːrˈnæsəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἁλικαρνᾱσσός Halikarnāssós or Ἀλικαρνασσός Alikarnāssós; Turkish : Halikarnas) was an ancient Greek city at the site of modern Bodrum
Bodrum
in Turkey
Turkey
. It was located in southwest Caria
Caria
on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf . The city was famous for the Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Halicarnassus , also known simply as the Tomb of Mausolus
Mausolus
, whose name provided the origin of the word mausoleum , built between 353 BC and 350 BC. The mausoleum is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world , and was part of the Persian Empire until it was captured by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
at the siege of Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus
in 334 BC
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Onesilus
ONESILUS or ONESILOS (Greek : Ὀνήσιλος; died 497 BC) was the brother of king Gorgos (Gorgus) of the Greek city-state of Salamis on the island of Cyprus . He is known through the work of Herodotus (Histories, V.104–115). Cyprus was a part of the Persian Empire , but, when the Ionians rebelled from Persian rule , Onesilos captured the city of Salamis and usurped his brother’s throne. He was able to win over every city on the island except for the Graeco-Phoenician city-state of Amathus , which stayed loyal to the Persians. In 497 BC, the Persians, with the help of the Phoenician navy, mounted an attack on Cyprus. Some of the Ionian colonies sent ships to assist Onesilos. In the ensuing battle, the Ionian fleet was able to defeat the Phoenician navy. Onesilos then led an army against the Persian general, Artybius. While Artybius was killed, the Persians won the battle during which Onesilos was killed
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Polis
POLIS (/ˈpɒlᵻs/ ; Greek : πόλις pronounced ), plural POLEIS (/ˈpɒleɪz/ , πόλεις ), literally means city in Greek. It can also mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is normally used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states , like Classical Athens
Classical Athens
and its contemporaries, and thus is often translated as "city-state ". The Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city, state, and citizenship and persisted (though with decreasing influence) well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin
Latin
word was civitas, also meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity. The term "city-state", which originated in English (alongside the German Stadtstaat), does not fully translate the Greek term
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Eretria
ERETRIA (/əˈriːtriə/ ; Greek : Ερέτρια, Eretria, literally "city of the rowers") is a town in Euboea
Euboea
, Greece
Greece
, facing the coast of Attica
Attica
across the narrow South Euboean Gulf . It was an important Greek polis in the 6th/5th century BC, mentioned by many famous writers and actively involved in significant historical events. Excavations of the ancient city began in the 1890s and have been conducted since 1964 by the Greek Archaeological Service (11th Ephorate of Antiquities) and the Swiss School of Archaeology in Greece
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Miletus
MILETUS (/maɪˈliːtəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Μί̄λητος Mīlētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms ); Latin : Miletus; Turkish : Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia
Anatolia
, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria
Caria
. Its ruins are located near the modern village of Balat in Aydın Province
Aydın Province
, Turkey
Turkey
. Before the Persian invasion in the middle of the 6th century BC, Miletus
Miletus
was considered the greatest and wealthiest of Greek cities
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Cyrus The Great
PERSIAN REVOLT * Battle of Hyrba * Battle of the Persian Border INVASION OF ANATOLIA * Battle of Pteria * Battle of Thymbra * Siege of Sardis
Sardis
INVASION OF BABYLONIA * Battle of Opis * Siege of Babylon
Babylon
CYRUS II OF PERSIA ( Old Persian
Old Persian
: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian : کوروش Kūrosh; Hebrew
Hebrew
: כֹּרֶשׁ Koresh; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as CYRUS THE GREAT  and also called CYRUS THE ELDER by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire . Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East , expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia
Southwest Asia
and much of Central Asia and the Caucasus
Caucasus

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Thespiae
THESPIAE (Greek : Θεσπιαί, Thespiaí) was an ancient Greek city (polis ) in Boeotia
Boeotia
. It stood on level ground commanded by the low range of hills which run eastward from the foot of Mount Helicon to Thebes , near modern Thespies . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Archaeological remains * 3 Love and the Muses * 4 Thespians * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Silver Obol from Thespiae, 431-424 BC. Obverse: Boeotian shield Reverse: crescent, ΘΕΣ(ΠΙΕΩΝ) of Thespians. In the history of ancient Greece , Thespiae
Thespiae
was one of the cities of the federal league known as the Boeotian League
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Killed In Action
KILLED IN ACTION (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces. The United States
United States
Department of Defense , for example, says that those declared KIA need not have fired their weapons but have been killed due to hostile attack. KIAs do not come from incidents such as accidental vehicle crashes and other "non-hostile" events or terrorism. KIA can be applied both to front-line combat troops and to naval, air and support troops. Someone who is killed in action during a particular event is denoted with a † (dagger ) beside their name to signify their death in that event or events. Further, KIA denotes one to have been killed in action on the battlefield whereas DIED OF WOUNDS (DOW) relates to someone who survived to reach a medical treatment facility
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Ancient Egypt
ANCIENT EGYPT was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa , concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile
Nile
River in the place that is now the country Egypt
Egypt
. Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt
Egypt
and coalesced around 3100 BC (according to conventional Egyptian chronology
Egyptian chronology
) with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt
Egypt
under Menes (often identified with Narmer
Narmer
). The history of ancient Egypt
Egypt
occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age , the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age
Middle Bronze Age
and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age
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Aegean Islands
The AEGEAN ISLANDS (Greek : Νησιά Αιγαίου, transliterated : Nisiá Aigaíou; Turkish : Ege Adaları) are the group of islands in the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
, with mainland Greece
Greece
to the west and north and Turkey to the east; the island of Crete
Crete
delimits the sea to the south, those of Rhodes
Rhodes
, Karpathos and Kasos to the southeast. The ancient Greek name of the Aegean Sea, Archipelago
Archipelago
(ἀρχιπέλαγος, archipelagos) was later applied to the islands it contains and is now used more generally, to refer to any island group. The vast majority of the Aegean Islands
Aegean Islands
belong to Greece, being split among nine administrative regions
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Thrace
THRACE (/ˈθreɪs/ ; Modern Greek
Modern Greek
: Θράκη, Thráke; Bulgarian : Тракия, Trakiya; Turkish : Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe
Europe
, now split between Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, Greece
Greece
and Turkey
Turkey
, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea
Aegean Sea
to the south and the Black Sea
Black Sea
to the east
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Cyprus
CYPRUS, officially the REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS, is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean . Cyprus
Cyprus
is located south of Turkey
Turkey
, west of Syria
Syria
and Lebanon
Lebanon
, northwest of Israel
Israel
, north of Egypt
Egypt
, and southeast of Greece
Greece
. The earliest known human activity on the island dates to around the 10th millennium BC. Archaeological remains from this period include the well-preserved Neolithic
Neolithic
village of Khirokitia , and Cyprus
Cyprus
is home to some of the oldest water wells in the world
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Kylix (drinking Cup)
In the pottery of ancient Greece , a KYLIX ( Ancient Greek : κύλιξ, pl. κύλικες; pronounced /ˈkaɪlɪks/ , "KEYE-liks " or /ˈkɪlɪks/ , "KIL-liks ", also spelled CYLIX; pl.: KYLIKES /ˈkaɪlɪˌkiːz/ , "KEYE-luh-keez " or /ˈkɪlɪˌkiːz/ , "KIL-luh-keez ") is the most common type of wine -drinking cup . It has a broad, relatively shallow, body raised on a stem from a foot and usually two horizontal handles disposed symmetrically. The main alternative wine-cup shape was the kantharos , with a narrower and deeper cup and high vertical handles. The almost flat interior circle of the base of the cup, called the tondo , was generally the primary surface for painted decoration in the black-figure or red-figure pottery styles of the 6th and 5th century BC, and the outside was also often painted. As the representations would be covered with wine, the scenes would only be revealed in stages as the wine was drained
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