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Great Turkish War
 Holy Roman Empire Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Tsardom of Russia Cossack HetmanateKingdom of Croatia Kingdom of Hungary Republic of Venice Duchy of Mantua  Spanish Empire Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro Serbian rebels Albanian rebels Greek rebels Bulgarian rebels Ottoman Empire Vassal states: Crimean Khanate Upper Hungary
Hungary
(1683-5)  Moldavia  Wallachia  Transylvaniav t eGreat Turkish WarVienna Párkány Esztergom Vác 1st Buda Santa Maura Coron Érsekújvár Eperjes Kassa Navarino Modon 2nd Buda Nauplia Pécs Patras Mohács Acropolis 1st Crimean Negropont
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Tsardom Of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia
Russia
(Русское царство,[2][3] Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство,[4][5] Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy,[6][7] was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar
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Azov
Azov
Azov
(Russian: Азов), formerly known as Azoff,[8] is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just 16 kilometers (9.9 mi) from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town. Population: 82,937 (2010 Census);[4] 82,090 (2002 Census);[9] 80,297 (1989 Census).[10]Contents1 History1.1 Early settlements in the vicinity 1.2 Archaeological digs2 Fortress 3 Administrative and municipal status 4 Government 5 Geography5.1 Climate6 Attractions 7 Twin towns—sister cities 8 See also 9 References9.1 Notes 9.2 Sources10 External linksHistory[edit] Early settlements in the vicinity[edit] The mouth of the Don River has always been an important commercial center. At the start of the 3rd century BCE, the Greeks from the Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
founded a colony here, which they called Tanais (after the Greek name of the river)
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Transylvania
Transylvania
Transylvania
is a historical region in today's central Romania. Bound on the east and south by its natural borders, the Carpathian mountain range, historical Transylvania
Transylvania
extended westward to the Apuseni Mountains. The term sometimes encompasses not only Transylvania proper, but also the historical regions of Crișana
Crișana
and Maramureș, and occasionally the Romanian part of Banat. The region of Transylvania
Transylvania
is known for the scenery of its Carpathian landscape and its rich history
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Principality Of Upper Hungary
The Principality
Principality
of Upper Hungary[1] (Hungarian: Felső-Magyarországi Fejedelemség; Turkish: Orta Macar, "Middle Hungary") was a short lived Ottoman vassal state ruled by Imre Thököly. It was established on 19 November 1682.[2] The polity agreed to pay 20,000 gold[clarification needed] to the Ottomans annually.[3] In 1685 Thököly was defeated at Eperjes (present-day Prešov) and the Turks imprisoned him because of his previous negotiations with Leopold therefore his realm ceased to exist. References[edit]^ Hadtörténelmi közlemények, Volume 118, Issues 3-4, Hadtörténeti Intézet és Múzeum, 2005, p. 409 ^ J. János Varga, A fogyó félhold árnyékában, Gondolat, Budapest, 1986, p
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Crimean Khanate
The Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
(Crimean Tatar
Tatar
language: قرم خانلغى‎, Qırım Hanlığı or قرم يورتى‎, Qırım Yurtu) was a Turkic state of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
from 1441 to 1783, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde
Golden Horde
of Mongol origin. Established by Hacı I Giray in 1441, the Crimean khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, thirteenth son of Jochi
Jochi
and grandson of Genghis Khan through marriage; Temür married one of Genghis Khan's granddaughters. Though, according to a well-known Russian historian, Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences Zaitsev Ilya Vladimirovich, the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
was an independent state during all its history[2]
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Vassal And Tributary States Of The Ottoman Empire
Vassal States were a number of tributary or vassal states, usually on the periphery of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
under suzerainty of the Porte, over which direct control was not established, for various reasons.Contents1 Functions 2 Forms 3 List 4 See also 5 ReferencesFunctions[edit] Some of these states served as buffer states between the Ottomans and Christianity in Europe or Shi’ism in Asia. Their number varied over time but notable were the Khanate of Crimea, Wallachia, Moldavia, Transylvania
Transylvania
and the Principality of Serbia
Principality of Serbia
from 1815 until its full independence half of century later. Other states such as Bulgaria, the Eastern Hungarian Kingdom, the Serbian Despotate
Serbian Despotate
and the Kingdom of Bosnia were vassals before being absorbed entirely or partially into the Empire
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Bulgarians
Bulgarians
Bulgarians
(Bulgarian: българи, Bǎlgari, IPA: ['bɤɫɡɐri]) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria
Bulgaria
and its neighboring regions.Contents1 Citizenship 2 Ethnogenesis2.1 Bulgarian ethnogenetic conception3 Genetic origins 4 History4.1 Bulgarian national movement5 Demographics 6 Related ethnic groups 7 Culture7.1 Language7.1.1 Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet 7.1.2 Name system7.2 Religion 7.3 Art and science 7.4 Cuisine 7.5 Folk beliefs and customs 7.6 Folk dress and music 7.7 Sport 7.8 Symbols8 Maps 9 See also 10 References 11 Sources 12 External linksCitizenship According to the Art.25 (1) of Constitution of Bulgaria, a Bulgarian citizen shall be anyone born to at least one parent holding a Bulgarian citizenship, or born on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria, should they not be entitled to any other citizenship by virtue of origin
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Greeks
Pontic SteppeDomestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe culturesBug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk YamnaMikhaylovka cultureCaucasusMaykopEast-AsiaAfanasevoEastern EuropeUsatovo Cernavodă CucuteniNorthern EuropeCorded wareBaden Middle DnieperBronze AgePontic SteppeChariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka SrubnaNorthern/Eastern SteppeAbashevo culture Andronovo SintashtaEuropeGlobular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordi
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Albanians
Islam
Islam
(majority) Sunni · Bektashi · Sufism Christianity
Christianity
(minority) Roman Catholicism · Italo-Albanian Catholic
Catholic
Church · Albanian Orthodox · Protestantism Irreligion1 502,546 Albanian citizens, an additional 43,751 Kosovo
Kosovo
Albanians
Albanians
and 260,000 Arbëreshë people[17][18][36] 2 Albanians
Albanians
are not recognized as a minority in Turkey. However approximately 500,000 people are reported to profess an Albanian identity
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Spanish Empire
The Spanish Empire
Empire
(Spanish: Imperio Español) was one of the largest empires in history. At the time, it was not known as that by the Spanish with the monarch ruling kingdoms in Spain, his possessions in Italy and northern Europe, and in the "Spanish Indies," its New World territories and the Philippines.[1] From the late fifteenth century to the early nineteenth, Spain's crown of Castile controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World.[2][3] The crown's main source of wealth was from gold and silver mined in Mexico
Mexico
and Peru. The empire reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs,[4] through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
in the 18th century
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Duchy Of Mantua
The Duchy of Mantua
Mantua
was a duchy in Lombardy, Northern Italy, subject to the Holy Roman Empire.Contents1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit]Vincenzo II Gonzaga, by Peter Paul RubensLudovico III receiving the news of his son Francesco being elected cardinal, fresco by Andrea Mantegna
Andrea Mantegna
in the Stanza degli Sposi of the Palazzo Ducale.After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, Mantua
Mantua
was invaded by Byzantines, Lombards
Lombards
and Franks. In the 11th century it became a possession of Boniface of Canossa, marquis of Toscana. The last ruler of the family was the countess Matilde of Canossa (died 1115), who, according to legend, ordered the construction of the precious Rotonda di San Lorenzo (1082)
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Kingdom Of Croatia (Habsburg)
The Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(Croatian: Kraljevina Hrvatska; Latin: Regnum Croatiae Hungarian: Horvát Királyság German: Königreich Kroatien) was part of the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
that existed between 1527 and 1868 (also known between 1804 and 1867 as the Austrian Empire), as well as a part of the Lands of the Crown of St. Stephen, but was subject to direct Imperial Austrian rule for significant periods of time, including its final years. Its capital was Zagreb. Until the 18th century, the Habsburg
Habsburg
Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
included only a small north-western part of present-day Croatia
Croatia
around Zagreb, and a small strip of coastland around Rijeka
Rijeka
that was not part of the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
or part of the Habsburg
Habsburg
Military Frontier
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Cossack Hetmanate
Russia Moldova Belarus Hetmanate capitalalternate Hetman
Hetman
residenceLittle Russia
Russia
capitalPart of a series on theHistory
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Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
(Latin: Sacrum Imperium Romanum; German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe
Central Europe
that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars.[6] The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.[7][8][9] On 25 December 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish king Charlemagne as Emperor, reviving the title in Western Europe, more than three centuries after the fall of the earlier ancient Western Roman Empire in 476
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Prince-Bishopric Of Montenegro
Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro
Montenegro
was an ecclesiastical principality that existed from 1696 until 1852. It emerged from the Serbian Orthodox bishops of Cetinje, later metropolitans, who renounced Ottoman overlordship and transformed the parish of Cetinje
Cetinje
to a Russian de facto protectorate, ruling as Metropolitans (vladika, also rendered "Prince-Bishop")
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