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Great Mosque Of Kairouan
The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
(Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر‎), also known as the Mosque
Mosque
of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan. Established by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi
Uqba ibn Nafi
in 670 AD (the year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square metres and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb.[1] The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan
Kairouan
is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa;[2] its perimeter is almost equal to 405 metres (1,328 feet)
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Septentrional
Septentrional, meaning "of the north", is a word rarely used in English, but is commonly used in Latin and in the Romance languages. The term septentrional usually is found on maps, mostly those made before 1700. Early maps of North
North
America often refer to the northern- and northwestern-most unexplored areas of the continent as at the "Septentrional" and as "America Septentrionalis", sometimes with slightly varying spellings.[note 1] The term septentrional is the adjectival form of the Latin noun septentrion, which refers to the seven stars of the Big Dipper asterism, the Septentrion.Contents1 Etymology 2 Usage 3 French wine
French wine
regions 4 See also 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
gives the etymology of septentrional as:[ad. L. septentrio, sing. of septentriōnēs, orig
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Oratory (worship)
An oratory is a Christian room for prayer, from the Latin orare, to pray.Contents1 Catholic Church 2 Examples 3 Notes 4 External linksCatholic Church[edit] In the Roman Catholic Church, an oratory is a structure other than a parish church, set aside by ecclesiastical authority for prayer and the celebration of Mass. It is for all intents and purposes another word for what is commonly called a chapel, except a few oratories are set up for the Divine Office and prayers but not Mass.Oratory of Santa Maria Annunziata in Borgo, RomePreviously, canon law distinguished several types of oratories: private (with use restricted to an individual, such as a bishop, or group, such as a family, and their invited guests), semi-public (open under certain circumstances to the public), or public (built for the benefit of any of the faithful who wish to use it)
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Cupola
In architecture, a cupola /ˈkjuːpələ/ is a relatively small, most often dome-like, tall structure on top of a building.[1] Often used to provide a lookout or to admit light and air, it usually crowns a larger roof or dome.[2][3] The word derives, via Italian, from the lower Latin cupula (classical Latin cupella from the Greek κύπελλον kupellon) "small cup" (Latin cupa) indicating a vault resembling an upside down cup.[4] The cupola is a development during the Renaissance of the oculus, an ancient device found in Roman architecture, but being weatherproof was superior for the wetter climates of northern Europe.[citation needed] The chhatri, seen in Indian architecture, fits the definition of a cupola when it is used atop a larger structure.[citation needed] Cupolas often appear as small buildings in their own right. They often serve as a belfry, belvedere, or roof lantern above a main roof
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Kusaila
Caecilius (Berber: ⴰⴾⵙⵉⵍ, Aksil or Aksel, Latin: Caecilius, Arabic: Kusaila[1]), his name means "leopard" in the Berber language, died in the year 690 AD fighting Muslim invaders, was a 7th-century Berber Christian king of the kingdom of Altava and leader of the Awraba tribe of the Imazighen
Imazighen
and possibly Christian King of the Sanhadja
Sanhadja
confederation
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Ghassanids
The Ghassanids
Ghassanids
(Arabic: الغساسنة‎‏; al-Ghasāsinah, also Banū Ghassān "Sons of Ghassān") were an Arab
Arab
kingdom, founded by descendants of the
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Hasan Ibn Al-Nu'man
Hasan ibn an-Nu`uman al-Ghasani (Arabic: حسان بن النعمان الغساني‎ Hasān ibn an-Nu‘umān al-Ghasānī) (d. c. 700), amir (general) of the Umayyad
Umayyad
army in North Africa. The nisba indicates he either came from Ghassān[1] in Yemen
Yemen
or was part of an Arab
Arab
tribe originally from that area. Biography[edit] Dates in this section are according to Ibn Abd al-Hakam (work cited below), other medieval sources give a range of 4 years before and after. He was appointed governor of the Maghreb
Maghreb
about the year 692. At this time, the Arab
Arab
forces had still not managed to entirely defeat the Byzantine
Byzantine
Greeks in North Africa
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Hisham Ibn Abd Al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik
(691 – 6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك‎) was the 10th Umayyad
Umayyad
caliph who ruled from 724 until his death in 743. When he was born in 691 his mother named him after her father. Reign[edit] Inheriting the caliphate from his brother Yazid II, Hisham was ruling an empire with many different problems. He would, however, be effective in attending to these problems, and in allowing the Umayyad empire to continue as an entity. His long rule was an effective one, and it saw a rebirth of reforms that were originated by Umar bin Abd al-Aziz. Like his brother al-Walid I, Hisham was a great patron of the arts, and he again encouraged arts in the empire. He also encouraged the growth of education by building more schools, and perhaps most importantly, by overseeing the translation of numerous literary and scientific masterpieces into Arabic
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Umayyad
The Umayyad Caliphate
Caliphate
(Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt Omayyad,[2] was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty
Umayyad dynasty
(Arabic: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya"), hailing from Mecca. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan
Uthman ibn Affan
(r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan, long-time governor of Syria, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Caliph
A caliphate (Arabic: خِلافة‎ khilāfah) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (/ˈkælɪf, ˈkeɪ-/, Arabic: خَليفة‎ khalīfah,  pronunciation (help·info)), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and a leader of the entire Muslim
Muslim
community.[1] Historically, the caliphates were polities based in Islam
Islam
which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.[2] During the medieval period, three major caliphates succeeded each other: the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
(632–661), the Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) and the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258)
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Damascus
Damascus
Damascus
(/dəˈmæskəs/; Arabic: دمشق‎ Dimashq [diˈmaʃq], Syrian: [dˈməʃe(ː)ʔ]) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is likely also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo
Aleppo
due to the battle for the city. It is commonly known in Syria
Syria
as ash-Sham (Arabic: الشام‎ ash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine
Jasmine
(Arabic: مدينة الياسمين‎ Madīnat al-Yāsmīn). In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world,[4] Damascus
Damascus
is a major cultural centre of the Levant
Levant
and the Arab world
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Ziyadat Allah I Of Aghlabids
Ziyadat Allah I (Arabic: زيادة الله الأول‎) (died June 10, 838) was the third Aghlabid Emir in Ifriqiya from 817 until his death. Abu Muhammad Ziyadat Allah I succeeded his brother Abdallah I (812–817) to the Emirate of Ifriqiya. During his rule the relationship between the ruling dynasty on the one hand and the jurists and Arab troops on the other remained strained. When Ziyadat Allah I attempted to disband the Arab units in 824, it led to a great revolt at Tunis, which was only put down in 836 with the help of the Berbers. Ziyadat had already begun campaigns in Italy in an attempt to divert the restless Arab troops, and so in 827 there began the gradual conquest of Sicily from the Byzantine Empire, under the jurist Asad ibn al-Furat. Although initially repulsed by the Byzantines, they managed to conquer Palermo in 831
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Bay (architecture)
In architecture, a bay is the space between architectural elements, or a recess or compartment. Bay comes from "Old French baee," meaning an opening or hole.[1]Contents1 Examples 2 East Asia 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples[edit]The spaces between posts, columns, or buttresses in the length of a building, the division in the widths being called aisles. This meaning also applies to overhead vaults (between ribs), in a building using a vaulted structural system. For example, the Gothic architecture period's Chartres Cathedral
Cathedral
has a nave (main interior space) that is "seven bays long." Similarly in timber framing a bay is the space between posts in the transverse direction of the building and aisles run longitudinally.[2] The openings for windows in a wall
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Buttress
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall.[1] Buttresses are fairly common on more ancient buildings, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral (sideways) forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate bracing. The term counterfort can be synonymous with buttress,[2] and is often used when referring to dams, retaining walls and other structures holding back earth. Early examples of buttresses are found on the Eanna
Eanna
Temple (ancient Uruk), dating to as early as the 4th millennium BCE.[citation needed]Contents1 Terminology 2 Gallery 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksTerminology[edit] In addition to flying and ordinary buttresses, brick and masonry buttresses that support wall corners can be classified according to their ground plan
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Portico
A portico (from Italian) is a porch leading to the entrance of a building, or extended as a colonnade, with a roof structure over a walkway, supported by columns or enclosed by walls. This idea was widely used in Ancient Greece
Ancient Greece
and has influenced many cultures, including most Western cultures. Some noteworthy examples of porticos are the East Portico
Portico
of the United States Capitol, the portico adorning the Pantheon in Rome
Rome
and the portico of University College London. Porticos are sometimes topped with pediments. Palladio
Palladio
was a pioneer of using temple-fronts for secular buildings
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Ibrahim II Of Ifriqiya
Abu Ishaq Ibrahim II ibn Ahmad (Arabic: أبو اسحاق ابراهيم الثاني‎) (27 June 850 – 23 October 902) was the ninth Aghlabid emir of Ifriqiya. He ruled from 875 until his abdication in 902.Contents1 Accession 2 Raqqada and other works 3 Centralizing ruler 4 Conflict with Egypt and Nafusa 5 Homicidal reputation 6 Sicily under Ibrahim II 7 Abdication 8 Final campaign 9 Aftermath 10 Notes 11 ReferencesAccession[edit] Abu Ishaq Ibrahim was the son of the Aghlabid emir Ahmad of Ifriqiya. After his father's death in 863, the emirate of Ifriqiya passed to his father's brother Ziyadat Allah II, but he died shortly after, and the succession passed back to the main line, to Ibrahim's brother Abu 'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II. Muhammad II was a frivolous and pleasure-loving ruler
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