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Great Basin
The Great Basin
Great Basin
is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America. It spans sections of Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Nevada, Oregon, California
California
and the Mexican state of Baja California. It is noted for both its arid climate and the basin and range topography that varies from the North American low point at Badwater Basin
Badwater Basin
to the highest point of the contiguous United States, less than 100 miles (160 km) away at the summit of Mount Whitney
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Topography
Topography
Topography
is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth
Earth
and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description (especially their depiction in maps). This field of geoscience and planetary science is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but also natural and artificial features, and even local history and culture. This meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. The older sense of topography as the study of place still has currency in Europe. Topography
Topography
in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, and the identification of specific landforms
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Ethnography
Ethnography
Ethnography
(from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is the systematic study of people and cultures. It is designed to explore cultural phenomena where the researcher observes society from the point of view of the subject of the study. An ethnography is a means to represent graphically and in writing the culture of a group
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Ecology
Ecology
Ecology
(from Greek: οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of")[A] is the branch of biology[1] which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment. Objects of study include interactions of organisms with each other and with abiotic components of their environment. Topics of interest include the biodiversity, distribution, biomass, and populations of organisms, as well as cooperation and competition within and between species. Ecosystems
Ecosystems
are dynamically interacting systems of organisms, the communities they make up, and the non-living components of their environment. Ecosystem
Ecosystem
processes, such as primary production, pedogenesis, nutrient cycling, and niche construction, regulate the flux of energy and matter through an environment. These processes are sustained by organisms with specific life history traits
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Hydrography
Hydrography
Hydrography
is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.[1]Contents1 History 2 Overview 3 Organizations 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit]Alexander Dalrymple, the first Hydrographer of the Navy
Hydrographer of the Navy
in the United Kingdom, appointed in 1795.The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters. These were usually the private property, even closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage
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Mexico
Coordinates: 23°N 102°W / 23°N 102°W / 23; -102United Mexican States Estados Unidos Mexicanos  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsAnthem: "Himno Nacional Mexicano" (English: "Mexican National Anthem")Capital and largest city Mexico
Mexico
City 19°26′N 99°08′W / 19.433°N 99.133°W / 19.433; -99.133Official languagesNone at federal level[b] Spanish (de facto)Recognized regional languagesSpanish 68 native languages[1]National language Spanish[b]Religion83% Roman Catholicis
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Ecoregion
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone. All three of these are either less or greater than an ecosystem.[citation needed][clarification needed] Ecoregions cover relatively large areas of land or water, and contain characteristic, geographically distinct assemblages of natural communities and species. The biodiversity of flora, fauna and ecosystems that characterise an ecoregion tends to be distinct from that of other ecoregions. In theory, biodiversity or conservation ecoregions are relatively large areas of land or water where the probability of encountering different species and communities at any given point remains relatively constant, within an acceptable range of variation (largely undefined at this point). Three caveats are appropriate for all bio-geographic mapping approaches. Firstly, no single bio-geographic framework is optimal for all taxa
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Biome
A biome /ˈbaɪoʊm/ is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in. They can be found over a range of continents. Biomes are distinct biological communities that have formed in response to a shared physical climate.[1][2] "Biome" is a broader term than "habitat"; any biome can comprise a variety of habitats. While a biome can cover large areas, a microbiome is a mix of organisms that coexist in a defined space on a much smaller scale. For example, the human microbiome is the collection of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms that are present on a human body.[3] A 'biota' is the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales
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Physical Geography
Physical geography
Physical geography
(also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.[1][2][3] Physical geography is that branch of natural science which deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and geosphere, as opposed to the cultural or built environment, the domain of human geography.Contents1 Sub-branches 2 Journals and literature 3 Historical evolution of the discipline 4 Notable physical geographers 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External linksSub-branches[edit]A natural arch.Physical Geography
Geography
can be divided into several sub-fields, as follows: Geomorphology
Geomorphology
is the field concerned with understanding the surface of the Earth and the processes by which it is shaped, both at the present as well as in the past
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Contiguous United States
The contiguous United States
United States
consists of the 48 adjoining U.S. states plus Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(federal district), on the continent of North America.[1] The term excludes the non-contiguous states of Alaska
Alaska
and Hawaii, and all off-shore insular areas.[2][3] The greatest distance (on a great circle route) entirely within the 48 contiguous states is 2,802 miles (4,509 km, between Florida
Florida
and the State of Washington);[4] the greatest north-south line is 1,650 miles (2,660 km).[5] Together, the 48 contiguous states and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
occupy a combined area of 3,119,884.69 square miles (8,080,464.3 km2), which is 1.58% of the total surface area of Earth. Of this area, 2,959,064.44 square miles (7,663,941.7 km2) is contiguous land, composing 83.65% of total U.S
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Basin And Range Topography
Basin and range topography
Basin and range topography
is an alternating landscape of parallel mountain ranges and valleys. It is a result of crustal extension/stretching (extensional tectonics) of the lithosphere (crust and upper mantle) due to mantle upwelling, gravitational collapse, crustal thickening, or relaxation of confining stresses.[1][2] Crustal extension causes the thinning and deformation of the upper crust in an orientation perpendicular to the direction of extension. As the plates pull apart, they thin allowing the hot mantle to rise close to the surface.[3] When the crust is extended it fractures along a fault plane, creating a series of long parallel normal faults. Between these normal faults are blocks, which subside, get uplifted or tilted. This is known as block faulting. Basins are formed due to subsidence of a block, while the blocks adjacent to the subsidence gets uplifted creating ranges
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Baja California
^ a. 2010 and later, Baja California
California
is the only state to use the USA DST schedule state wide, while the rest of Mexico
Mexico
(except for small portions of other northern states) starts DST 3–4 weeks later and ends DST one week earlier)[6] ^ b. The state's GDP
GDP
was 294.8 billion of pesos in 2008,[7] amount corresponding to 23.03 billion of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of 3 June 2010).[8]Baja California[note 1] (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈbaxa kaliˈfoɾnja] ( listen)), (English: Lower California), officially the Free and Sovereign State of Baja California
California
(Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Baja California), is a state in Mexico. It is the northernmost and westernmost of the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
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Salient (geography)
A salient is an elongated protrusion of a geopolitical entity, such as a subnational entity or a sovereign state. While similar to a peninsula in shape, a salient is not surrounded by water on three sides and connected to a geographical mainland. Instead, it is delimited by a land border on at least two sides and extends out from the larger geographical body of the administrative unit. In American English
American English
the term panhandle is often used to describe a relatively long and narrow salient, such as the westernmost extension of Oklahoma
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Armen Takhtajan
Armen Leonovich Takhtajan
Takhtajan
or Takhtajian (Armenian: Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; Russian: Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n
Takhtadzhi︠a︡n
or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) (June 10, 1910 – November 13, 2009), was a Soviet-Armenian botanist, one of the most important figures in 20th century plant evolution and systematics and biogeography. His other interests included morphology of flowering plants, paleobotany, and the flora of the Caucasus. He was born in Shusha
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Snake River Plain
Coordinates: 43°00′N 113°30′W / 43.000°N 113.500°W / 43.000; -113.500The Snake River
Snake River
cutting through the plain leaves many canyons and gorges, such as this one near Twin Falls, Idaho Snake River
Snake River
Plain across southern IdahoThe eastern Snake River
Snake River
Plain, image from NASA's Aqua satellite, 2008The Snake River
Snake River
Plain is a geologic feature located primarily within the U.S. state of Idaho. It stretches about 400 miles (640 km) westward from northwest of the state of Wyoming
Wyoming
to the Idaho-Oregon border. The plain is a wide, flat bow-shaped depression and covers about a quarter of Idaho
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Mogollon Rim
The Mogollon Rim
Mogollon Rim
(/mʌɡɪˈjoʊn/ or /moʊɡəˈjoʊn/) or /mɒɡɒdʒɔːn/)[1][2] is a topographical and geological feature cutting across the U.S. state
U.S. state
of Arizona. It extends approximately 200 miles (320 km), starting in northern Yavapai County and running eastward, ending near the border with New Mexico.[3] It forms the southern edge of the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
in Arizona.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] The Rim is an escarpment defining the southwestern edge of the Colorado Plateau. Its central and most spectacular portions are characterized by high cliffs of limestone and sandstone, namely the Kaibab Limestone
Limestone
and Coconino Sandstone
Sandstone
cliffs
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