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Grasshopper Cannon
Grasshopper was the nickname for a cannon used by the British in the late 18th century as a light battalion gun to support infantry. It was designed for service in rough terrain such as the frontiers of British North America. Its barrel was made of bronze instead of iron. Bronze
Bronze
is less brittle than cast iron, and so the barrel could be made thinner and lighter than that of an iron gun. Further, if a bronze gun developed a defect it would rupture; an iron gun with a flaw would shatter, at great cost to its own crew. It fired a three-pound ball (or 3 pounds of canister shot). Using the conventional bracket or split trail, the gun could be moved by its own crew using drag ropes and wooden shafts much like a handcart. Two straight shafts were placed on each side of the cheek pieces facing forward, and two angled ones at the trail
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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Battle Of Guilford Courthouse
The Battle
Battle
of Guilford Court House was a battle fought on March 15, 1781, at a site which is now in Greensboro, the county seat of Guilford County, North Carolina, during the American Revolutionary War. A 2,100-man British force under the command of Lieutenant General Charles Cornwallis defeated Major General
Major General
Nathanael Greene's 4,500 Americans. The British Army, however, lost a considerable number of men during the battle (with estimates as high as 27%).[10] Such heavy British casualties resulted in a strategic victory for the Americans. The battle was “the largest and most hotly contested action”[11] in the American Revolution’s southern action, and led to the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Before the battle, the British had had great success in conquering much of Georgia and South Carolina with the aid of strong Loyalist factions, and thought that North Carolina might be within their grasp
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Artillery
Artillery
Artillery
is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms. Early artillery development focused on the ability to breach fortifications, and led to heavy, fairly immobile siege engines. As technology improved, lighter, more mobile field artillery developed for battlefield use. This development continues today; modern self-propelled artillery vehicles are highly mobile weapons of great versatility providing the largest share of an army's total firepower. In its earliest sense, the word artillery referred to any group of soldiers primarily armed with some form of manufactured weapon or armour. Since the introduction of gunpowder and cannon, the word "artillery" has largely meant cannon, and in contemporary usage, it usually refers to shell-firing guns, howitzers, mortars, rockets and guided missiles
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Battle Of Frenchtown
The Battles of Frenchtown, also known as the Battle of the River Raisin and the River Raisin
River Raisin
Massacre, was a series of conflicts that took place from January 18–23, 1813 during the War of 1812. It was fought between the United States
United States
and a British and Native American alliance near the River Raisin
River Raisin
in Frenchtown, Michigan
Michigan
Territory (present-day Monroe, Michigan). The battle fought on January 22 may rank as having had the highest number of fatalities of any battle during this war (with only the seven-week Siege of Fort Erie
Siege of Fort Erie
in August/September 1814 recording a similar number of total fatalities). On January 18, 1813 the Americans forced the retreat of the British and their Native American allies from Frenchtown, which they had earlier occupied, in a relatively minor skirmish
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War Of 1812
Treaty of GhentMilitary stalemate; both sides' invasion attempts repulsed Status quo ante bellum Defeat of Tecumseh's ConfederacyBelligerents United StatesChoctaw Cherokee Creeks British Empire United Kingdom  The Canadas Tecumseh's Confederacy[1] Shawnee Creek Red Sticks Ojibwe Fox Iroquois Miami Mingo Ottawa Kickapoo Delaware (Lenape) Mascouten Potawatomi Sauk Wyandot Bourbon Spain Florida (1814)Commanders and leaders James Madison Henry Dearborn Jacob Brown Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson William Henry Harrison William H. Winder (POW) William Hull  (POW) Zebulon Pike † Oliver Hazard Perry Isaac Chauncey George, Prince Regent Lord Liverpool Sir George Prévost Sir Isaac Brock † Gordon Drummond Charles de Salaberry Roger Hale Sheaffe Robert Ross † Edward Pakenham † James FitzGibbon Alexander Cochrane James Lucas Yeo Tecumseh †StrengthU.S
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Battle Of Craney Island
The Battle of Craney Island was a victory for the United States during the War of 1812. The battle saved the city of Norfolk, Virginia, from British invasion.Contents1 Background 2 Battle 3 Results 4 References and further readingBackground[edit] Admiral Sir George Cockburn commanded a British fleet blockading Chesapeake Bay. In early 1813, Cockburn and Admiral Sir John B. Warren planned to attack the Gosport Shipyard in Portsmouth and capture the frigate U.S.S. Constellation. Brigadier General Robert B. Taylor commanded the Virginia Militia in the Norfolk area. Taylor hastily built defenses around Norfolk and Portsmouth, but he had no intentions of letting the British penetrate as far as those two cities. Instead Taylor commandeered several ships and created a barrier across the Elizabeth River. He next built fortifications on Craney Island at the mouth of the Elizabeth River near Hampton Roads
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Siege Of Yorktown
Decisive Franco-American victoryEnd of major land operations in North America Beginning of peace negotiationsBelligerents United States Canadian auxiliaries France Great Britain Loyalists Hesse-Kassel Ansbach[1]Commanders and leaders George Washington Benjamin Lincoln Henry Knox Alexander Hamilton Marquis de Lafayette Baron von Steuben Thomas Nelson Moses Hazen Comte de Rochambeau Comte d'Aboville Marquis de Choisy Comte de Grasse Lord Cornwallis  Charles O'Hara  Banastre Tarleton  Robert Abercromby  Thomas Dundas  Thomas Symonds  Matthew Fuchs  August Voight StrengthFrench: 7,800–8,800 regulars 29 warships[2] American: 8,000 regulars 3,100 militia[2] Total: 18,900 9,000 (includes German troops)[3]Casualties and losses88 killed 301 wounded[4] 142–309 killed; 326–595 wounded prisoners; 7,416–7,685 captured[5]
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American Revolution
The American Revolution
Revolution
was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States
United States
of America. They defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with France and others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765. They rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body
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Split Trail
A gun carriage is a frame and mount that supports the gun barrel of an artillery piece, allowing it to be manoeuvred and fired.Contents1 Early guns 2 Smoothbore
Smoothbore
gun carriages2.1 Naval or garrison carriages 2.2 Field carriages3 Modern gun carriages 4 State and Military funerals 5 References 6 See alsoEarly guns[edit]A medieval bombard on a wooden bed staked to the ground.The earliest guns were laid directly onto the ground, with earth being piled up under the muzzle end of the barrel to increase the elevation. As the size of guns increased, they began to be attached to heavy wooden frames or beds that were held down by stakes. These began to be replaced by wheeled carriages in the early 16th century.[1] Smoothbore
Smoothbore
gun carriages[edit] From the 16th to the mid-19th century, the main form of artillery remained the smoothbore cannon
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Canister Shot
Canister shot
Canister shot
is a kind of anti-personnel ammunition used in cannons. It was similar to case and the naval grapeshot, but fired smaller and more numerous balls, which did not have to punch through the wooden hull of a ship. Canister shot
Canister shot
has been used since the advent of gunpowder-firing artillery in Western armies; however, canister (or case) shot saw particularly frequent use on land and at sea in the various wars of the 18th and 19th century
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Iron
Iron
Iron
is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin: ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust. Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars, where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova, which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements, ruthenium and osmium, iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states, −2 to +7, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water. Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides, commonly known as rust
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Bronze
Bronze
Bronze
is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon. These additions produce a range of alloys that may be harder than copper alone, or have other useful properties, such as stiffness, ductility, or machinability. The archeological period where bronze was the hardest metal in widespread use is known as the Bronze
Bronze
Age. The beginning of the Bronze Age in Western Eurasia
Eurasia
and South Asia
Asia
is conventionally dated to the mid-4th millennium BC, and to the early 2nd millennium BC in China;[1] everywhere it gradually spread across regions
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Gun Barrel
A gun barrel is a crucial part of gun-type ranged weapons such as small firearms, artillery pieces and air guns. It is the straight shooting tube, usually made of rigid high-strength metal, through which a contained rapid expansion of high-pressure gas(es) is introduced (via propellant combustion or via mechanical compression) behind a projectile in order to propel it out of the front end (muzzle) at a high velocity. The hollow interior of the barrel is called the bore. The measurement of the diameter of the bore is called the caliber
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British North America
 United StatesThe term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire
British Empire
in mainland North America
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