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Grapheme
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.[1] An individual grapheme may or may not carry meaning by itself, and may or may not correspond to a single phoneme of the spoken language. Graphemes include alphabetic letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols. A grapheme can also be construed as a graphical sign that independently represents a portion of linguistic material.[2] The word grapheme, coined in analogy with phoneme, is derived from Ancient Greek γράφω (gráphō), meaning 'write', and the suffix -eme, by analogy with phoneme and other names of emic units. The study of graphemes is called graphemics. The concept of graphemes is an abstract one and similar to the notion in computing of a character. By comparison, a specific shape that represents any particular grapheme in a specific typeface is called a glyph
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Arabic Numerals
Arabic
Arabic
numerals, also called Hindu– Arabic
Arabic
numerals,[1][2] are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu– Arabic
Arabic
numeral system,[3] the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today. In this numeral system, a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a single number, using the position of the digit in the sequence to interpret its value. They are descended from the Hindu- Arabic
Arabic
numeral system developed by Indian mathematicians around AD 500.[3] The system was adopted by Arabic
Arabic
mathematicians in Baghdad
Baghdad
and passed on to the Arabs farther west
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Numerical Digit
A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems. The single digits –as one-digit-numerals– and their combinations (such as "25") are the numerals of the numeral system they belong to. The name "digit" comes from the fact that the ten digits ( Latin
Latin
digiti meaning fingers)[1] of the hands correspond to the ten symbols of the common base 10 numeral system, i.e. the decimal (ancient Latin
Latin
adjective decem meaning ten)[2] digits. For a given numeral system with an integer base, the number of digits required to express arbitrary numbers is given by the absolute value of the base
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Ancient Greek Language
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Linguistics
Linguistics
Linguistics
is the scientific[1] study of language,[2] and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.[3] The earliest activities in the documentation and description of language have been attributed to the 4th century BC Indian grammarian Pāṇini,[4][5] who wrote a formal description of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language in his Aṣṭādhyāyī.[6] Linguists traditionally analyse human language by observing an interplay between sound and meaning.[7] Phonetics is the study of speech and non-speech sounds, and delves into their acoustic and articulatory properties
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Computing
Computing
Computing
is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Computing
Computing
includes designing, developing and building hardware and software systems; designing a mathematical sequence of steps known as an algorithm; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific research on and with computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; and creating and using communications and entertainment media
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Typeface
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features. Each font of a typeface has a specific weight, style, condensation, width, slant, italicization, ornamentation, and designer or foundry (and formerly size, in metal fonts). For example, "ITC Garamond
Garamond
Bold Condensed Italic" means the bold, condensed-width, italic version of ITC Garamond
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Shorthand
Shorthand
Shorthand
is an abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. The process of writing in shorthand is called stenography, from the Greek stenos (narrow) and graphein (to write). It has also been called brachygraphy, from Greek brachys (short) and tachygraphy, from Greek tachys (swift, speedy), depending on whether compression or speed of writing is the goal. Many forms of shorthand exist. A typical shorthand system provides symbols or abbreviations for words and common phrases, which can allow someone well-trained in the system to write as quickly as people speak. Abbreviation
Abbreviation
methods are alphabet-based and use different abbreviating approaches. Several autocomplete programs, standalone or integrated in text editors, based on word lists, also include a shorthand function for frequently used phrases
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Times New Roman
Times New Roman
Times New Roman
is a serif typeface designed for legibility in body text. It was commissioned by the British newspaper The Times
The Times
in 1931 and conceived by Stanley Morison, the artistic advisor to the British branch of the printing equipment company Monotype, in collaboration with Victor Lardent, a lettering artist in the Times' advertising department.[1][2] Although no longer used by The Times, Times New Roman is still very common in book and general printing.[3] It has become one of the most popular and influential typefaces in history and a standard typeface on most desktop computers.[4][5] Times New Roman's creation took place through the influence of Stanley Morison of Monotype. Morison was an artistic director at Monotype, historian of printing and informal adviser to The Times
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Helvetica
Helvetica
Helvetica
or Neue Haas Grotesk is a widely used sans-serif typeface developed in 1957 by Swiss typeface designer Max Miedinger with input from Eduard Hoffmann. Helvetica
Helvetica
is a neo-grotesque or realist design, one influenced by the famous 19th century typeface Akzidenz-Grotesk
Akzidenz-Grotesk
and other German and Swiss designs.[1] Its use became a hallmark of the International Typographic Style that emerged from the work of Swiss designers in the 1950s and 60s, becoming one of the most popular typefaces of the 20th century.[2] Over the years, a wide range of variants have been released in different weights, widths and sizes, as well as matching designs for a range of non- Latin
Latin
alphabets
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Phonetics
Phonetics (pronounced /fəˈnɛtɪks/) is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.[1] It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs (phones): their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory perception, and neurophysiological status
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Surface Form
In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.[1][2] By contrast, a surface representation is the phonetic representation of the word or sound. The concept of an underlying representation is central to generative grammar.[3] If more phonological rules apply to the same underlying form, they can apply wholly independently of each other or in a feeding or counterbleeding order. The underlying representation of a morpheme is considered to be invariable across related forms (except in cases of suppletion), despite alternations among various allophones on the surface. Examples[edit] In many cases, the underlying form is simply the phonemic form
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Phone (phonetics)
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words. In contrast, a phoneme is a speech sound that, in a given language, if it were swapped with another phoneme, would change the meaning of the word. Phones are absolute, not specific to any language, but phonemes can be discussed only in reference to specific languages. For example, the English words kid and kit end with two distinct phonemes, and swapping one for the other would change the word's meaning. However, the difference between the p sounds in pun (pʰ, with aspiration) and spun (p, no aspiration) never affects the meaning of a word in English so they are phones and not phonemes
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Allophone
In phonology, an allophone (/ˈæləfoʊn/; from the Greek: ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.[1] For example, [pʰ] (as in pin) and [p] (as in spin which is less aspirated) are allophones for the phoneme /p/ in the English language. The specific allophone selected in a given situation is often predictable from the phonetic context (such allophones are called positional variants), but sometimes allophones occur in free variation. Replacing a sound by another allophone of the same phoneme will usually not change the meaning of a word, although sometimes the result may sound non-native or even unintelligible
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Semantics
Semantics (from Ancient Greek: σημαντικός sēmantikos, "significant")[1][2] is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words, phrases, signs, and symbols—and what they stand for, their denotation. In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology. The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal, a French philologist.[3] It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation. This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics
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Lowercase
Letter case
Letter case
(or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages. The writing systems that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set. The two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and pronunciation and will be treated identically when sorting in alphabetical order. Letter case
Letter case
is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text
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