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Grape
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil
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Areni-1 Winery
Coordinates: 39°43′53″N 45°12′13″E / 39.731335°N 45.203626°E / 39.731335; 45.203626Entrance to the Areni-1 caveThe Areni-1 winery
Areni-1 winery
is a 6100-year-old winery that was discovered in 2007 in the Areni-1 cave complex
Areni-1 cave complex
in the village of Areni
Areni
in the Vayots Dzor province of the Republic of Armenia
Republic of Armenia
by a team of Armenian and Irish archaeologists. The excavations were carried out by Boris Gasparyan of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography of the National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
National Academy of Sciences of Armenia
and Ron Pinhasi from University College Cork
University College Cork
(Ireland), and were sponsored by the Gfoeller Foundation (USA) and University College Cork
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Microgram
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one billionth (6991100000000000000♠1×10−9) of a kilogram, one millionth (6994100000000000000♠1×10−6) of a gram, or one thousandth (6997100000000000000♠1×10−3) of a milligram. The unit symbol is μg according to the International System of Units. In μg the prefix symbol for micro- is the Greek letter μ (Mu). Abbreviation and symbol confusion[edit] When the Greek lowercase “μ” (Mu) in the symbol μg is typographically unavailable, it is occasionally—although not properly—replaced by the Latin lowercase “u”. The United States-based Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and the U.S
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Niacin
Niacin
Niacin
also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex.[2] It has the formula C 6H 5NO 2 and belongs to the group of the pyridinecarboxylic acids. Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency). Insufficient niacin in the diet can cause nausea, skin and mouth lesions, anemia, headaches, and tiredness. The lack of niacin may also be observed in pandemic deficiency disease, which is caused by a lack of five crucial vitamins (niacin, vitamin C, thiamin, vitamin D, and vitamin A) and is usually found in areas of widespread poverty and malnutrition. Niacin is provided in the diet from a variety of whole and processed foods, with highest contents in fortified packaged foods, tuna, some vegetable and other animal sources
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Riboflavin
Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[1] As a supplement it is used to prevent and treat riboflavin deficiency and prevent migraines.[1] It may be given by mouth or injection.[1] It is nearly always well tolerated.[1] Normal doses are safe during pregnancy.[1] Riboflavin
Riboflavin
is in the vitamin B group.[1] It is required by the body for cellular respiration.[1] Food sources include eggs, green vegetables, milk, and meat.[3] Riboflavin
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Thiamine
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.[2] As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Korsakoff's psychosis.[1] Other uses include treatment of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh's disease.[1] It is taken by mouth or by injection.[1] Side effects are generally few.[1] Allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur.[1] Thiamine
Thiamine
is in the B complex family.[1] It is needed for the metabolism of carbohydrates.[1] As people are unable to make it, thiamine is an essential nutrient.
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Protein (nutrient)
Proteins are essential nutrients for the human body.[1] They are one of the building blocks of body tissue and can also serve as a fuel source. As a fuel, proteins provide as much energy density as carbohydrates: 4 kcal (17 kJ) per gram; in contrast, lipids provide 9 kcal (37 kJ) per gram. The most important aspect and defining characteristic of protein from a nutritional standpoint is its amino acid composition.[2] Proteins are polymer chains made of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body.[3] There are nine essential amino acids which humans must obtain from their diet in order to prevent protein-energy malnutrition and resulting death
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Human Iron Metabolism
Human iron metabolism
Human iron metabolism
is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at both the systemic and cellular level. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic metal is an important part of many aspects of human health and disease. Hematologists have been especially interested in systemic iron metabolism because iron is essential for red blood cells, where most of the human body's iron is contained
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Magnesium In Biology
Magnesium
Magnesium
is an essential element in biological systems. Magnesium occurs typically as the Mg2+ ion. It is an essential mineral nutrient (i.e., element) for life[1][2][3][4] and is present in every cell type in every organism. For example, ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the main source of energy in cells, must bind to a magnesium ion in order to be biologically active
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Potassium In Biology
Potassium
Potassium
is an essential mineral micronutrient and is the main intracellular ion for all types of cells. It is important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the bodies of humans and animals.[1][2] Potassium
Potassium
is necessary for the function of all living cells, and is thus present in all plant and animal tissues. It is found in especially high concentrations within plant cells, and in a mixed diet, it is most highly concentrated in fruits. The high concentration of potassium in plants, associated with comparatively very low amounts of sodium there, historically resulted in potassium first being isolated from the ashes of plants (potash), which in turn gave the element its modern name
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Food Energy
Food
Food
energy is chemical energy that animals (including humans) derive from food through the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration may either involve the chemical reaction of food molecules with molecular oxygen[1] (aerobic respiration) or the process of reorganizing the food molecules without additional oxygen (anaerobic respiration).Contents1 Overview 2 Nutrition
Nutrition
labels 3 Recommended daily intake 4 Energy usage in the human body 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOverview[edit] Humans and other animals need a minimum intake of food energy to sustain their metabolism and to drive their muscles. Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and water represent virtually all the weight of food, with vitamins and minerals making up only a small percentage of the weight
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Sodium In Biology
Sodium
Sodium
ions are necessary in small amounts for some types of plants, but sodium as a nutrient is more generally needed in larger amounts by animals, due to their use of it for generation of nerve impulses and for maintenance of electrolyte balance and fluid balance. In animals, sodium ions are necessary for the aforementioned functions and for heart activity and certain metabolic functions.[1] The health effects of salt reflect what happens when the body has too much or too little sodium. Characteristic concentrations of sodium in model organisms are: 10mM in E
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Fluoride
Fluoride
Fluoride
/ˈflʊəraɪd/,[3] /ˈflɔːraɪd/[3] is an inorganic, monatomic anion of fluorine with the chemical formula F−. Fluoride is the simplest anion of fluorine. Its salts and minerals are important chemical reagents and industrial chemicals, mainly used in the production of hydrogen fluoride for fluorocarbons. In terms of charge and size, the fluoride ion resembles the hydroxide ion. Fluoride
Fluoride
ions occur on earth in several minerals, particularly fluorite, but are only present in trace quantities in water. Fluoride contributes a distinctive bitter taste
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Vinegar
Vinegar
Vinegar
is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water, and other trace chemicals, which may include flavorings. The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria.[1] Vinegar
Vinegar
is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has historically had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which (such as its use as a general household cleaner) are still commonly practiced today. Commercial vinegar is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation process. In general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars where fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of a few months or up to a year
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Milligram
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units
International System of Units
(SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram
Kilogram
(IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"),[2] a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures
International Bureau of Weights and Measures
at Saint-Cloud, France. The kilogram was originally defined as the mass of a litre (cubic decimetre) of water at its freezing point. That was an inconvenient quantity to precisely replicate, so in the late 18th century a platinum artefact was fashioned as a standard for the kilogram
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Near East
The Near East
Near East
is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia. Despite having varying definitions within different academic circles, the term was originally applied to the maximum extent of the Ottoman Empire
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