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Grand Duke Of Tuscany
The rulers of Tuscany
Tuscany
have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.Contents1 Margraves of Tuscany, 812–11971.1 House of Boniface 1.2 House of Boso 1.3 House of Hucpold 1.4 Nondynastic 1.5 House of Canossa 1.6 Nondynastic2 Rulers of Florence, 1382–15692.1 De facto rulers of the <
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Imperial And Royal Highness
Imperial and Royal Highness
Royal Highness
(abbreviation HI&RH) is a style possessed by someone who either through birth or marriage holds two individual styles, Imperial Highness and Royal Highness. His/Her Imperial Highness is a style used by members of an imperial family to denote imperial – as opposed to royal – status to show that the holder is descended from an Emperor
Emperor
rather than a King. Holders of the style Imperial Highness generally rank above holders of the style Royal Highness A primary example of the contemporary usage of this style is the Belgian Royal Family. HI&RH Lorenz, Archduke of Austria-Este, Prince of Belgium
Belgium
is a member of the Imperial House of Habsburg-Lorraine by birth, but upon his marriage to HRH Princess Astrid of Belgium, he also became a member of the Belgian Royal Family by marriage
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Christian, Archbishop Of Mainz
Christian I (c. 1130 – 23 August 1183), sometimes Christian von Buch, was a German prelate and nobleman. He was Archbishop of Mainz and Archchancellor
Archchancellor
of Germany from 1165 until his death 1183. He was originally elected archbishop in 1160 in a disputed election. He served the Emperor Frederick I
Emperor Frederick I
as a diplomat in Italy on two occasions.Contents1 Biography1.1 First trip into Italy 1.2 Diplomat 1.3 Second trip into Italy2 Notes 3 Sources 4 External linksBiography[edit] Christian was of the family of Beichlingen (de) and ruled the small county of Bucha. He entered the church under the patronage of Louis II, Landgrave of Thuringia, who helped him to the position of cathedral provost of Merseburg. In 1160, with the murder of the Archbishop Arnold of Mainz, Mainz was placed under an interdict
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Godfrey IV, Duke Of Lower Lorraine
Lorraine
Lorraine
(French pronunciation: ​[lɔʁɛn]; Lorrain: Louréne; Lorraine
Lorraine
Franconian: Lottringe; German:  Lothringen (help·info); Luxembourgish: Loutrengen) is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I
Lothair I
or King Lothair II. It later was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine
Lorraine
before the Kingdom of France
France
annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine
Lorraine
was an administrative region of France
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Welf II, Duke Of Bavaria
Welf II (1072 – 24 September 1120, Kaufering), or Welfhard, called Welf the Fat, was Duke of Bavaria
Duke of Bavaria
from 1101 until his death. In the Welf genealogy, he is counted as Welf V. Welf was the oldest son of Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, and his wife Judith of Flanders.[1] In 1089, he was married to Matilda of Tuscany,[1] who was 26 years older, in order to strengthen the relation between his family and the pope during the Investiture Controversy between king and pope. During King Henry IV's Italian campaign of 1090, Welf and Matilda fought against the King. Since Matilda had secretly transferred her property to the Church before her marriage, Welf left her in 1095 and, together with his father, changed sides to King Henry IV, possibly in exchange for a promise of succeeding his father as duke of Bavaria. After his father's death in 1101 Welf indeed inherited the office of duke of Bavaria
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Rabodo
Rabodo (or Rapoto) was the imperial vicar and marquis of Tuscany from 1116 until his death in battle in 1119
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Conrad Of Tuscany
Conrad (German: Konrad, Italian: Corrado) was the margrave of Tuscany from 1119/20 until 1129/31. He was a German (Teutonicus in contemporary records), appointed by the Emperor Henry V to bring Tuscany back under imperial control. During the long Investiture Controversy, the Tuscan countess Matilda of Canossa
Matilda of Canossa
had taken the ecclesiastical side against the emperor and imperial influence in the Tuscan margraviate was at low ebb upon her death in 1115. Conrad was the second in a series of 12th-century German appointees who proved too weak to restore imperial control and whose tenures are associated with the rise of self-government in the Tuscan cities—Florence, Genoa, Lucca, Pisa and Siena.Contents1 Origins 2 Rule in Tuscany 3 Imperial agent in Italy 4 Notes 5 Sources 6 Further readingOrigins[edit] His family and his place of birth are unidentified, although two conflicting lines of evidence both point to Bavaria
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Engelbert III Of Sponheim
Engelbert III[a] (died 6 October 1173), a member of the Rhenish Franconian House of Sponheim, was Margrave of Istria[1] from 1124 until his death.Contents1 Life 2 Notes 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He was the second son of Margrave Engelbert II and his first wife Uta of Passau. When his father succeeded his elder brother Henry as Duke of Carinthia, Engelbert III received the margravial title in Istria. However, he mainly ruled in the Sponheim estates around Kraiburg
Kraiburg
in Bavaria, bequested by his mother. In 1135 Emperor Lothair III dispatched him to a synod at Pisa
Pisa
in Italy, in order to back Pope Innocent II
Pope Innocent II
against Antipope Anacletus II
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Henry X, Duke Of Bavaria
Henry the Proud (German: Heinrich der Stolze) (c. 1108 – 20 October 1139), a member of the House of Welf, was Duke of Bavaria (as Henry X) from 1126 to 1138 and Duke of Saxony (as Henry II) as well as Margrave of Tuscany
Margrave of Tuscany
and Duke of Spoleto from 1137 until his death. In 1138 he was a candidate for the election as King of the Romans but was defeated by Conrad of Hohenstaufen. Life and reign[edit] He was the second son of Duke Henry IX of Bavaria and Wulfhilde, daughter of Duke Magnus of Saxony; thus not only a member of the Welf family, but, what was quite important, also senior heir of the Saxon House of Billung. Henry came of age in 1123, in 1126 his father retired to Weingarten Abbey
Weingarten Abbey
where he and his wife died shortly afterwards. As his elder brother Conrad had entered the Cistercian Order, Henry was enfeoffed with the Duchy of Bavaria
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Welf VI
Welf VI
Welf VI
(1115 – 15 December 1191) was the margrave of Tuscany (1152–1162) and duke of Spoleto (1152–1162), the third son of Henry IX, Duke of Bavaria, and a member of the illustrious family of the Welf. Welf inherited the familial possessions in Swabia, including the counties of Altdorf and Ravensburg, while his eldest brother Henry the Proud received the duchies of Bavaria
Bavaria
and Saxony
Saxony
and his elder brother Conrad entered the church. Henry married Welf to Uta, the daughter of Godfrey of Calw, count palatine of the Rhine. On Godfrey's death in 1131, a dispute opened up between Godfrey's nephew Adalbert and Welf over the inheritance of Calw. Welf was an uncle of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, as Barbarossa's mother, Judith, was Welf's sister
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Welf VII
Welf VII
Welf VII
(c. 1135 – 11 or 12 September 1167) was the only son of Welf VI, Duke of Spoleto and Margrave of Tuscany, and Uta, daughter of Godfrey of Calw, count palatine of the Rhine. He was a member of the House of Welf. His father inherited the family's estates in Swabia, including the prominent counties of Altdorf and Ravensburg, which he gave to Welf. Welf, however, spent much of his time managing the Italian possessions while his father stayed in Swabia. Both Welfs supported Frederick Barbarossa as king of Germany and the younger Welf (VII) accompanied him on his Italian campaigns, starting in 1154. In 1160, he was made duke of Spoleto by the emperor. Between 1164 and 1166, he participated in the famous feud between his father and Hugh of Tübingen, which the emperor himself resolved. He was a participant in the campaign of 1167, in which malaria devastated the army and forced the emperor back over the Alps
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Rainald Of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel
Rainald of Dassel
(c. 1120 – 14 August 1167) was Archbishop of Cologne
Cologne
and Archchancellor
Archchancellor
of Italy from 1159 until his death. A close advisor to the Hohenstaufen
Hohenstaufen
emperor Frederick Barbarossa, he had an important influence on Imperial politics, mainly in the Italian conflict of Guelphs and Ghibellines.Contents1 Life1.1 Ecclesiastical career 1.2 Chancellor 1.3 Archbishop2 References 3 External linksLife[edit] Rainald was a scion of the Counts of Dassel, who had inherited large estates in the Suilbergau
Suilbergau
of Saxony upon the extinction of the ducal Billung dynasty in 1106
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Philip Of Swabia
Philip of Swabia
Philip of Swabia
(February/March 1177 – 21 June 1208) was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen
House of Hohenstaufen
and King of Germany
Germany
from 1198 to 1208
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Beatrice Of Bar
Beatrice of Bar (also Beatrix) (c. 1020 – 18 April 1076) was a stateswoman and marchioness of Tuscany by marriage to Boniface III of Tuscany, and Regent
Regent
of Tuscany from 1052 until her death during the minority of and in co-regency with her daughter Matilda. She was the daughter of Frederick II, Duke of Upper Lorraine, count of Bar, and Matilda of Swabia
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Tuscan League
The Tuscan League, also known as the League of San Genesio, was formed on 11 November 1197 at Borgo San Genesio by the chief cities, barons and bishops of the Duchy of Tuscany shortly after the death of the Emperor Henry VI
Emperor Henry VI
(27 September). The league was the work of Pope Celestine III and his two papal legates: Pandulf, cardinal priest of Santi Apostoli, and Bernard, cardinal priest of San Pietro in Vincoli.[1] It was directed against the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
in alliance with the papacy. Its members swore not to make any alliances without papal approval, nor to make any peace or truce "with any emperor, king, prince, duke or margrave" without the approval of the rectors of the league.[2][3] The original signatories were the communes of Lucca, Florence and Siena, the people living under the castles of Prato
Prato
and San Miniato, and the bishopric of Volterra
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Frederick Of Antioch
Frederick's sarcophagus in the Cathedral of Palermo
Cathedral of Palermo
(above) and a frontal reproduction of the same (below). Frederick of Antioch
Frederick of Antioch
(c. 1223 – 1255/6), illegitimate son of the Emperor Frederick II and a south Italian noblewoman, ruled Tuscany from 1246 to 1250
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