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Graham Bell Island
Graham Bell Island
Island
(Russian: Остров Греэм-Белл, Ostrov Greem-Bell) is an island in the Franz Josef Archipelago
Franz Josef Archipelago
in the Arctic Ocean, and is administratively part of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Contents1 Geography 2 History 3 Adjacent Islands 4 See also 5 References5.1 CitationsGeography[edit] Graham Bell Island
Island
is one of the largest islands of the group. It lies east of Wilczek Land, separated from it by a narrow sound known as Morgan Sound (Пролив Моргана; Proliv Morgana). It is also the easternmost island of Franz Josef Land. Cape Kohlsaat, the easternmost point of the archipelago at 81°14′N, 65°10′E, lies on Graham Bell Island's eastern shore. Cape Kohlsaat marks the northwestern-most corner of the Kara Sea
Kara Sea
and is a significant geographical landmark
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Russian Language
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia.[30][31] It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
until its dissolution on 25 December 1991.[32] Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel
Israel
and Mongolia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch
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Arkhangelsk Oblast
Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
Oblast (Russian: Арха́нгельская о́бласть, Arkhangelskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(an oblast). It includes the Arctic archipelagos of Franz Josef Land and Novaya Zemlya, as well as the Solovetsky Islands
Solovetsky Islands
in the White Sea. Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
Oblast also has administrative jurisdiction over Nenets Autonomous Okrug. Including Nenetsia, Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk
Oblast has an area of 587,400 km2. Its population (including Nenetsia) was 1,227,626 as of the 2010 Census.[9] The city of Arkhangelsk, with a population of 348,716 as of the 2010 Census,[9] is the administrative center of the oblast.[15] The second largest city is the nearby Severodvinsk, home to Sevmash, the main shipyard for the Russian Navy
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Russian Air Force
The Russian Air Force
Russian Air Force
(Russian: Военно-воздушные cилы России, tr
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Ice Dome
Glacier
Glacier
morphology, or the form a glacier takes, is influenced by temperature, precipitation, topography, and other factors. Types of glaciers range from massive ice sheets, such as the Greenland
Greenland
ice sheet or those in Antarctica, to small cirque glaciers perched on a mountain. Glaciers can be grouped into two main categories, based on whether ice flow is constrained by the underlying bedrock topography.Contents1 Unconstrained1.1 Ice sheets and ice caps 1.2 Ice domes 1.3 Ice streams2 Constrained2.1 Icefield 2.2 Outlet glaciers 2.3 Valley glaciers 2.4 Piedmont glaciers 2.5 Cirque glaciers3 References 4 External linksUnconstrained[edit] Vatnajökull
Vatnajökull
ice cap in IcelandIce sheets and ice caps[edit] Ice sheets and ice caps cover vast areas and are unconstrained by the underlying topography having a radial flow
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Landmark
A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can also be applied to smaller structures or features, that have become local or national symbols.Contents1 Etymology 2 Types2.1 Natural 2.2 Human made3 See also 4 References 5 External linksEtymology[edit]The Statue of Liberty, a famous landmark of New York City
New York City
and United States, greets the newly arrived immigrants, located near Ellis Island where millions of immigrants first touched U.S. soil.In old English the word landmearc (from land + mearc (mark)) was used to describe an "object set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, estate, etc.".[1] Starting from approx. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a more general one. A landmark became a "conspicuous object in a landscape"
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Russia
Coordinates: 60°N 90°E / 60°N 90°E / 60; 90Russian Federation Росси́йская Федерaция (Russian) Rossiyskaya FederatsiyaFlagCoat of armsAnthem:  "Gosudarstvenny gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation"Location of Russia
Russia
(green) Russian-administered Crimea
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Cold War
Part of a series on the History of the Cold WarOrigins of the Cold WarWorld War II(Hiroshima and Nagasaki)War conferencesEastern BlocWestern BlocIron Curtain Cold War
Cold War
(1947–1953) Cold War
Cold War
(1953–1962) Cold War
Cold War
(1962–1979) Cold War
Cold War
(1979–1985) Cold War
Cold War
(1985–1991)Frozen conflictsTimeline · ConflictsHistoriography Cold War
Cold War
IIThe Cold War
Cold War
was a period of geopolitical tension between the Soviet Union with its satellite states (the Eastern Bloc), and the United States with its allies (the Western Bloc) after World War II. The historiography of the conflict began between 1946 (the year U.S. diplomat George F
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Island
An island or isle is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water.[2] Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, and a small island off the coast may be called a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, such as the Philippines, for example. An island may be described as such, despite the presence of an artificial land bridge; examples are Singapore
Singapore
and its causeway, and the various Dutch delta islands, such as IJsselmonde. Some places may even retain "island" in their names for historical reasons after being connected to a larger landmass by a land bridge or landfill, such as Coney Island
Coney Island
and Coronado Island, though these are, strictly speaking, tied islands
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Arctic Ocean
The Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.[1] The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
(IHO) recognizes it as an ocean, although some oceanographers call it the Arctic
Arctic
Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
or simply the Arctic
Arctic
Sea, classifying it a mediterranean sea or an estuary of the Atlantic Ocean.[2][3] It is also seen as the northernmost part of the all-encompassing World Ocean. Located mostly in the Arctic
Arctic
north polar region in the middle of the Northern Hemisphere, the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean
Ocean
is almost completely surrounded by Eurasia and North America. It is partly covered by sea ice throughout the year and almost completely in winter
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Barents Sea
The Barents Sea
Sea
(Norwegian: Barentshavet; Russian: Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean,[1] located off the northern coasts of Norway
Norway
and
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Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
Alexander Graham Bell
(March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922)[4] was a Scottish-born[N 2] scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with patenting the first practical telephone[7] and founding the American Telephone
Telephone
and Telegraph
Telegraph
Company (AT&T) in 1885.[8][9] Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[10] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S
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Wilczek Island
Wilczek Island, (Остров Вильчека; Ostrov Vil'cheka) is located in the southeastern end of Franz Josef Land, Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent islands2.1.1 Lamont Island3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Wilczek Island
Wilczek Island
was the first island of the Franz Josef Archipelago on which the Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition
Austro-Hungarian North Pole Expedition
set foot on November 1, 1873. A grave was dug ashore for Otto Krisch, a deceased member of the expedition and a cairn was erected with a message in a sealed container in it informing about the new discovery. On August 5, 1991, German ship Dagmar Aaen with the Arved Fuchs expedition reached Wilczek Island. Fuchs dug up the Austro-Hungarian expedition bottle from among the stones in the cairn, but the writing inside could not be read
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Heiss Island
Heiss Island
Heiss Island
(Russian: Остров Хейса, translit. Ostrov Kheysa) is an island in Franz Josef Land, Russia. It is located in the central area of the archipelago, north of Hall Island, between Champ Island and Wilczek Land. Its area is 132 km². Heiss island is almost unglacierized, having only a small ice-cap off its centre by its northern shore. Highest point 242 m. The strait to the south of Heiss Island
Heiss Island
is known as Proliv Markama, which narrows down to only 5 km at this point. On the east lies a strait known as Proliv Austrisky, beyond which lie the smaller Komsomol
Komsomol
Islands
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Hooker Island
Hooker Island
Hooker Island
(Russian: остров Гукера; Ostrov Gukera) is one of the central islands of Franz Josef Land. It is located in the central area of the archipelago at 80°14′N 53°01′E / 80.23°N 53.02°E / 80.23; 53.02. It is administered by the Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia.Contents1 History 2 Geography2.1 Adjacent islands2.1.1 Leigh-Smith Island 2.1.2 Royal Society Island 2.1.3 Scott-Keltie Island 2.1.4 Eaton Island 2.1.5 Newton Island 2.1.6 May Island 2.1.7 Etheridge Islands3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Hooker Island
Hooker Island
was named after British naturalist Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker who went with James Clark Ross' expedition on ships Erebus and Terror to Antarctica
Antarctica
in 1839.[1] Remains of a plesiosaur (Peloneustes philarchus) have been found in Hooker Island
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