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Government Procurement In The European Union
Government procurement or public procurement is undertaken by the public authorities of the European Union
European Union
(EU) and its member states in order to award contracts for public works and for the purchase of goods and services in accordance with the principles underlying the Treaties of the European Union. Public procurement represents 13.5% of EU GDP as of 2007,[1] and has been the subject of increasing European regulation since the 1970s because of its importance to the European single market. According to a study prepared for the European Commission
European Commission
by PwC, London Economics and Ecorys, the UK, France, Spain, Germany, Poland and Italy are together responsible for about 75% of all public procurement in the EU and European Economic Area, both in terms of the number of contracts awarded through EU-regulated procedures and in value
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Implied Terms
A contractual term is "Any provision forming part of a contract".[1] Each term gives rise to a contractual obligation, breach of which can give rise to litigation. Not all terms are stated expressly and some terms carry less legal gravity as they are peripheral to the objectives of the contract.Contents1 Classification of term1.1 Condition or Warranty 1.2 Innominate term2 Enforceability2.1 Statements 2.2 Determination of nature of a statement3 Implied terms3.1 Terms implied in fact 3.2 Terms implied in law3.2.1 Common law 3.2.2 Statutory3.3 Terms implied by custom or trade 3.4 Course of dealing 3.5 Good faith4 "Subject to" contracts4.1 Four Categories 4.2 Contingent Condition5 ReferencesClassification of term[edit] Condition or Warranty[edit] Conditions are terms that go to the very root of a contract
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Corruption
Corruption
Corruption
is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.[1] Corruption
Corruption
may include many activities including bribery and embezzlement, though it may also involve practices that are legal in many countries.[2] Government, or 'political', corruption occurs when an office-holder or other governmental employee acts in an official capacity for personal gain
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Law Of The Republic Of Ireland
The law of Ireland consists of constitutional, statute and common law. The highest law in the State is the Constitution of Ireland, from which all other law derives its authority. The Republic has a common-law legal system with a written constitution that provides for a parliamentary democracy based on the British parliamentary system,[1] albeit with a popularly elected president, a separation of powers, a developed system of constitutional rights and judicial review of primary legislation.[2] The sources of Irish law reflect Irish history and the various parliaments whose law affected the country down through the ages. Notable omissions from the list include laws passed by the first and second Dáil, and the Brehon Laws
Brehon Laws
which were traditional Celtic laws, the practice of which was only finally wiped out during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
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Accessibility
Accessibility
Accessibility
refers to the design of products, devices, services, or environments for people who experience disabilities.[1] The concept of accessible design and practice of accessible development ensures both "direct access" (i.e. unassisted) and "indirect access" meaning compatibility with a person's assistive technology (for example, computer screen readers). Accessibility
Accessibility
can be viewed as the "ability to access" and benefit from some system or entity
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Disability
Disability
Disability
is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these. It substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime. [1]Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. Disability
Disability
is thus not just a health problem
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Price Convergence
The law of one price (LOP) is an economic concept which posits that "a good must sell for the same price in all locations".[1][2][3][4][5][6][7] This law is derived from the assumption of the inevitable elimination of all arbitrage.[additional citation(s) needed] The law of one price constitutes the basis of the theory of purchasing power parity, an assumption that in some circumstances (for example, as a long-run tendency) it would cost exactly the same number of, for example, US dollars to buy euros and then to use the proceeds to buy a market basket of goods as it would cost to use those dollars directly in purchasing the market basket of goods.[additional citation(s) needed]Contents1 Overview1.1 Example in regular trade 1.2 Example in formal financial markets 1.3 Non-application2 Examples 3 See also 4 References 5 Further readingOverview[edit] The intuition behind the law of one price is based on the assumption that differences between prices are
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Predatory Pricing
Predatory pricing (also undercutting) is a pricing strategy in which a product or service is set at a very low price with the intention of drive competitors out of the market or creating barriers to entry for potential new competitors. Theoretically, if competitors or potential competitors cannot sustain equal or lower prices without losing money, they go out of business or choose not to enter the business. The so-called predatory merchant then theoretically has fewer competitors or even is a de facto monopoly. Now, predatory pricing is considered anti-competitive in many jurisdictions and is illegal under competition laws. However, it can be difficult to prove that prices dropped because of deliberate predatory pricing, rather than legitimate price competition
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VAT
A value-added tax (VAT), known in some countries as a goods and services tax (GST), is a type of general consumption tax that is collected incrementally, based on the increase in value of a product or service at each stage of production or distribution. VAT is usually implemented as a destination-based tax, where the tax rate is based on the location of the customer
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De Minimis
De minimis
De minimis
is a Latin
Latin
expression meaning "about minimal things", normally in the locutions de minimis non curat praetor ("The praetor does not
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Civil Engineering
Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines and railways.[1][2] Civil engineering
Civil engineering
is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines
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European Court Of Justice
Council of the EU PresidencyConfigurationsGeneral Foreign Justice
Justice
and Home EconomicEuroLegislative procedure Voting SecretariatSecretary-GeneralUwe CorsepiusDirectorates-general COREPERJudiciary Court
Court
of JusticeMembers RulingsGeneral CourtCentral BankPresident DraghiESCB Euro EMU Eurozone Court
Court
of AuditorsBudget OLAFOther bodiesAgencies Investment Bank CoR EESC Ombudsman National parliamentsPolicies and issuesForeign relationsHigh RepresentativeFederica MogheriniExt
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Bribery
Bribery
Bribery
is the act of giving money, goods or other forms of recompense to a recipient in exchange for an alteration of their behavior (to the benefit/interest of the giver) that the recipient would otherwise not alter. Bribery
Bribery
is defined by Black's Law Dictionary
Black's Law Dictionary
as the offering, giving, receiving, or soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions of an official or other person in charge of a public or legal duty.[1] Gifts of money or other items of value which are otherwise available to everyone on an equivalent basis, and not for dishonest purposes, is not bribery. Offering a discount or a refund to all purchasers is a legal rebate and is not bribery
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Judicial Review
Judicial review is a process under which executive and (in some countries) legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a higher authority; an executive decision may be invalidated for being unlawful or a statute may be invalidated for violating the terms of a written constitution. Judicial review is one of the checks and balances in the separation of powers: the power of the judiciary to supervise the legislative and executive branches when the latter exceed their authority
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Money Laundering
Money laundering
Money laundering
is the act of concealing the transformation of profits from illegal activities and corruption into ostensibly "legitimate" assets.[1] The dilemma of illicit activities is accounting for the origin of the proceeds of such activities without raising the suspicion of law enforcement agencies. Accordingly, considerable time and effort is put into devising strategies which enable the safe use of those proceeds without raising unwanted suspicion. Implementing such strategies is generally called money laundering. After money has been suitably laundered or “cleaned”, it can be used in the mainstream economy for accumulation of wealth, such as acquisitions of properties, or otherwise spent
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Taxation
A tax (from the Latin
Latin
taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.[1] A failure to pay, or evasion of or resistance to taxation, is punishable by law. Taxes consist of direct or indirect taxes and may be paid in money or as its labour equivalent. Most countries have a tax system in place to pay for public/common/agreed national needs and government functions: some levy a flat percentage rate of taxation on personal annual income, some on a scale based on annual income amounts, and some countries impose almost no taxation at all, or a very low tax rate for a certain area of taxation
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