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Gothic Fiction
Gothic fiction, which is largely known by the subgenre of Gothic horror, is a genre or mode of literature and film that combines fiction and horror, death, and at times romance or happiness. Its origin is attributed to English author Horace Walpole, with his 1764 novel The Castle
Castle
of Otranto, subtitled (in its second edition) "A Gothic Story". The effect of Gothic fiction
Gothic fiction
feeds on a pleasing sort of terror, an extension of Romantic literary pleasures that were relatively new at the time of Walpole's novel. It originated in England in the second half of the 18th century where, following Walpole, it was further developed by Clara Reeve, Ann Radcliffe, William Thomas Beckford
William Thomas Beckford
and Matthew Lewis
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Gothic Language
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language
Germanic language
that was spoken by the Goths. It is known primarily from the Codex Argenteus, a sixth-century copy of a fourth-century Bible
Bible
translation, and is the only East Germanic language
Germanic language
with a sizable text corpus. All others, including Burgundian and Vandalic, are known, if at all, only from proper names that survived in historical accounts, and from loanwords in other languages such as Portuguese, Spanish, and French. As a Germanic language, Gothic is a part of the Indo-European language family. It is the earliest Germanic language
Germanic language
that is attested in any sizable texts, but it lacks any modern descendants. The oldest documents in Gothic date back to the fourth century
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Charles Dickens
Charles John Huffam Dickens (/ˈdɪkɪnz/; 7 February 1812 – 9 June 1870) was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the world's best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era.[1] His works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the 20th century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity.[2][3] Born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors' prison
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Stéphanie Félicité, Comtesse De Genlis
Stéphanie Félicité du Crest de Saint-Aubin, Comtesse de Genlis (25 January 1746 – 31 December 1830), known as Madame de Genlis, was a French writer, harpist and educator, [1], Governess of the Children of France.Contents1 Life 2 Reception history2.1 Britain3 In literature 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Sources 7 Bibliography 8 External linksLife[edit] Félicité de Genlis was born at the château of Champcéry in Issy-l'Évêque, Saône-et-Loire, of a noble but impoverished Burgundian family. At six years old she was received as a canoness into the noble chapter of Alix near Lyon, with the title of Madame la Comtesse de Lancy, taken from the town of Bourbon-Lancy. Her entire education was conducted at home.[2]Madame de Genlis, portrait by Jacques-Antoine-Marie LemoineIn 1758, in Paris, her skill as a harpist and her vivacious wit speedily attracted admiration
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A Sicilian Romance
A Sicilian Romance
A Sicilian Romance
is a gothic novel by Ann Radcliffe. It was her second published work, and was first published anonymously in 1790.[1] The plot concerns the fallen nobility of the house of Mazzini, on the northern shore of Sicily, as related by a tourist who learns of their turbulent history from a monk he meets at the ruins of their once-magnificent castle. The Mazzini sisters, Emilia and Julia are 'beautiful' young ladies with many talents. Julia quickly falls in love with the young and handsome Italian count Hippolitus de Vereza, but to her dismay her father decides that she should marry Duke de Luovo instead. After much thought Julia attempts to elope with Hippolitus on the night before her wedding
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Age Of Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
(also known as the Age of Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
or the Age of Reason;[1] in French: le Siècle des Lumières, lit. '"the Century of Lights"'; and in German: Aufklärung, "Enlightenment")[2] was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".[3] The Enlightenment
The Enlightenment
included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and came to advance ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.[4][5] In France, the central doctrines of the Enlightenment philosophers were individual liberty and religious tolerance, in opposition to an absolute monarchy and the fixed dogmas of the Roman Catholic Church
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Henry Fielding
Henry Fielding
Henry Fielding
(22 April 1707 – 8 October 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich, earthy humour and satirical prowess, and as the author of the picaresque novel Tom Jones. Additionally, he holds a significant place in the history of law enforcement, having used his authority as a magistrate to found (with his half-brother John) what some have called London's first police force, the Bow Street Runners. His younger sister, Sarah, also became a successful writer.[1]Contents1 Dramatist and novelist 2 Marriages 3 Jurist and magistrate 4 Partial list of works 5 References 6 External linksDramatist and novelist[edit] Fielding was born at Sharpham, Somerset, and educated at Eton College, where he established a lifelong friendship with William Pitt the Elder.[2] When Henry was 11, his mother died. A suit for custody was brought by his grandmother against his charming but irresponsible father, Lt. Gen. Edmund Fielding
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Samuel Richardson
Samuel Richardson
Samuel Richardson
(19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761) was an 18th-century English writer and printer. He is best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753). Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, including journals and magazines. He was also known to collaborate closely with the London bookseller Andrew Millar on several occasions.[1] At a very early age, Richardson was apprenticed to a printer, whose daughter he eventually married. He lost his first wife along with their five sons, and eventually remarried. With his second wife, he had four daughters who reached adulthood, but no male heirs to continue running the printing business
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Christian Heinrich Spiess
Christian Heinrich Spiess (4 April 1755 – 17 August 1799) was a German writer of romances.Contents1 Life 2 Bibliography 3 References 4 External linksLife[edit] He was born in Freiberg in Saxony. For a time an actor, he was appointed in 1788 controller on the estate of Count Caspar Hermann von Künigl at Besdiekau in Bohemia, where he died, almost insane, the result of his weird fancies, on 17 August 1799.[1] Spiess, in his Ritter-, Räuber- and Geister-Romane, as they are called—stories of knights, robbers and ghosts of the "dark" ages—the idea of which he borrowed from Goethe's Götz von Berlichingen and Schiller's Die Räuber and Der Geisterseher, was the founder of the German Schauerroman (shocker), a style of writing continued, though in a finer vein, by Carl Gottlob Cramer (1758–1817) and by Goethe's brother-in-law, Christian August Vulpius.[1] These stories, appealing largely to the vulgar taste, made Spiess one of the most widely read authors of his day
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Inquisition
The Inquisition
Inquisition
was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
whose aim was to combat heresy. It started in 12th-century France
France
to combat religious dissent, in particular the Cathars
Cathars
and the Waldensians. Other groups investigated later included the Spiritual Franciscans, the Hussites
Hussites
(followers of Jan Hus) and the Beguines
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Justine (Sade)
Justine, or The Misfortunes of Virtue
Virtue
(French: Justine, ou Les Malheurs de la Vertu) is a 1791 novel by Donatien Alphonse François de Sade, better known as the Marquis de Sade. Justine is set just before the French Revolution
French Revolution
in France and tells the story of a young woman who goes under the name of Thérèse. Her story is recounted to Madame de Lorsagne while defending herself for her crimes, en route to punishment and death. She explains the series of misfortunes that led her present situation.Contents1 History of the work 2 Modern publication 3 Plot summary 4 Legacy 5 Film, TV or theatrical adaptations 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External linksHistory of the work[edit] Justine (original French title: Les infortunes de la vertu) was an early work by the Marquis de Sade, written in two weeks in 1787 while imprisoned in the Bastille
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François-Thomas-Marie De Baculard D'Arnaud
François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud (8 September 1718 – 8 November 1805) was a French writer and dramatist. A practitioner of the roman noir. His series of novellas Les Épreuves du sentiment inspired Bellini's opera Adelson e Salvini.Contents1 Works1.1 Theatre 1.2 Varia2 Bibliography 3 Externeal linksWorks[edit] Theatre[edit]Coligni, ou la St
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A Christmas Carol
A Christmas Carol
Christmas Carol
in Prose, Being a Ghost-Story of Christmas, commonly known as A Christmas
Christmas
Carol, is a novella by Charles Dickens, first published in London by Chapman & Hall in 1843; the first edition was illustrated by John Leech. A Christmas Carol
Christmas Carol
tells the story of Ebenezer Scrooge, an old miser who is visited by the ghost of his former business partner Jacob Marley
Jacob Marley
and the Ghosts of Christmas
Christmas
Past, Present and Yet to Come. After their visits Scrooge is transformed into a kinder, gentler man. Dickens wrote A Christmas Carol
Christmas Carol
at a time when the British were examining and exploring Christmas traditions
Christmas traditions
from the past, such as carols, as well as new customs such as Christmas
Christmas
trees
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French Revolution
The French Revolution
Revolution
(French: Révolution française [ʁevɔlysjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France
France
and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799. It was partially carried forward by Napoleon
Napoleon
during the later expansion of the French Empire. The Revolution
Revolution
overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, catalyzed violent periods of political turmoil, and finally culminated in a dictatorship under Napoleon
Napoleon
who brought many of its principles to areas he conquered in Western Europe and beyond
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Heinrich Zschokke
Johann Heinrich Daniel Zschokke (22 March 1771 – 27 June 1848) was a German, later Swiss, author and reformer. Most of his life was spent, and most of his reputation earned, in Switzerland. He had an extensive civil service career, and wrote histories, fiction and other works which were widely known.Contents1 Biography1.1 Youth and early career in Prussia 1.2 Move to Switzerland 1.3 Civil service 1.4 Writings 1.5 Later life2 References 3 Further reading 4 External linksBiography[edit] Youth and early career in Prussia[edit] Born in Magdeburg, Prussia, he was educated at the monasterial (Kloster) school and at the Altstädter Gymnasium there. He ran away from school at 17,[1] and spent some time as playwright with a company of strolling actors
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Christian August Vulpius
Christian August Vulpius
Christian August Vulpius
(23 January 1762 – 25 June 1827) was a German novelist and dramatist.[1] His sister married the noted German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.Contents1 Biography 2 Legacy 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] He was born at Weimar, and was educated at Jena and Erlangen. In 1790, he returned to Weimar, where Goethe obtained employment for him. Here, since 1788, Goethe had been contentedly living quasi-maritally with Vulpius's sister Christiane. In Weimar, Vulpius began, in imitation of Christian Heinrich Spiess, to write a series of romantic narratives: operas, dramas and tales. Of these (about sixty in number), his Rinaldo Rinaldini, the Robber Captain (1797), is the most notorious. A typical "penny dreadful" of the period, it was often translated and much imitated, but unrivaled in its bad eminence. Its scene was laid in Italy during the Middle Ages
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