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Gorgan
Gorgan
Gorgan
( pronunciation (help·info)) (Persian: گرگان‎;[2] formerly Astrabad or Astarabad (استرآباد)[3][4]) is the capital city of Golestan Province, Iran. It lies approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the north east of Tehran, some 30 km (19 mi) away from the Caspian Sea
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Mongol Invasion Of Khwarezmia And Eastern Iran
Disputed (see below). Estimates include:75,000 120,000–200,000 700,000 150,000 800,000Disputed (see below)
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Caspian Languages
Caspian languages
Caspian languages
are a branch of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken in northern Iran, south of the Caspian Sea. Languages[edit] Caspian languages
Caspian languages
include:Deilami Gilaki Talysh Mazanderani SemnaniReferences[edit]^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Caspian languages". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0
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Achaemenid Empire
The Achaemenid Empire
Empire
(/əˈkiːmənɪd/ c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire,[11] was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans
Balkans
and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army
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Turkmenistan
Coordinates: 40°N 60°E / 40°N 60°E / 40; 60Turkmenistan Türkmenistan  (Turkmen)FlagEmblemAnthem:  Garaşsyz Bitarap Türkmenistanyň Döwlet Gimni (English: "State Anthem of Independent, Neutral Turkmenistan")Location of  Turkmenistan  (red)Capital and largest city Ashgabat 37°58′N 58°20′E / 37.967°N 58.333°E / 37.967; 58.333Official languages Turkmen[1]Inter-ethnic languages RussianEthnic groups (2003)85% Turkmen 5% Uzbek 4% Russian 6% others[2]Demonym TurkmenGovernment Unitary authoritarian presidential republic• PresidentGurbanguly Berdimuhamedow• Chairman of the MejlisAkja NurberdiýewaLegislature MejlisFormation• 
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Ancient Greek
The Ancient Greek language
Greek language
includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece
Greece
and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period
Hellenistic period
(Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek
Attic Greek
and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek
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Avesta
The Avesta
Avesta
/əˈvɛstə/ is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.[1] The Avesta
Avesta
texts fall into several different categories, arranged either by dialect, or by usage. The principal text in the liturgical group is the Yasna, which takes its name from the Yasna
Yasna
ceremony, Zoroastrianism's primary act of worship, and at which the Yasna
Yasna
text is recited
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Proto-Iranian
Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic,[1] is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
branch of Indo-European language
Indo-European language
family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages
Iranian languages
such as Pashto, Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others. Its speakers, the hypothetical Proto-Iranians, are assumed to have lived in the early 2nd millennium BC, and they are usually connected with the Proto-Indo-Iranians
Proto-Indo-Iranians
and early Andronovo
Andronovo
archaeological horizon. Proto-Iranian was a satem language descended from the Proto-Indo-Iranian
Proto-Indo-Iranian
language, which in turn, came from the Proto-Indo-European language
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Post-Islamic Persia
The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia
Persia
in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt
Egypt
i
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Neolithic
farming, animal husbandry pottery, metallurgy, wheel circular ditches, henges, megaliths Neolithic
Neolithic
religion↓ ChalcolithicThe Neolithic
Neolithic
(/ˌniːəˈlɪθɪk/ ( listen)[1]) was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world[2] and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age
Stone Age
or The New Stone Age, the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic period and commenced with the beginning of farming, which produced the " Neolithic
Neolithic
Revolution"
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Middle Persian
Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran
Iran
that during the Sasanian Empire
Sasanian Empire
(224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well. Middle Persian
Middle Persian
is classified as a Western Iranian language. It descends from Old Persian
Old Persian
and is the linguistic ancestor of Modern Persian. Traces of Middle Persian, or Parsik, are found in remnants of Sasanian inscriptions and Egyptian papyri, coins and seals, fragments of Manichaean writings, and treatises and Zoroastrian books from the Sasanian era, as well as in the post-Sasanian Zoroastrian variant of the language sometimes known as Pahlavi, which originally referred to the Pahlavi scripts,[2][3] and that was also the preferred writing system for several other Middle Iranian languages
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Sange Chaxmaq
Sang-i Chakmak
Sang-i Chakmak
(Tappeh Sang-e Chakhmaq, Sange Chaxmaq, Chakhmagh) is a Neolithic
Neolithic
archaeological site located about 1 km north of the village of Bastam
Bastam
in the northern Semnan Province
Semnan Province
of Iran, on the southeastern flank of the Elburs Mountains. The site represents quite well the transition from the aceramic Neolithic
Neolithic
phase in the general area; this was taking place during the 7th millennium BC.Contents1 Excavations 2 Western settlement 3 Eastern settlement 4 Cultural sequence 5 See also 6 Notes 7 Literature 8 External linksExcavations[edit] The site was discovered in 1969 by Seiichi Masuda
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Arrian
Arrian
Arrian
of Nicomedia
Nicomedia
(c. 86/89 – c. after 146/160 AD;[2][3] /ˈæriən/; Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos, Latin: Lucius Flavius Arrianus,[4] was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.[3] The Anabasis of Alexander
The Anabasis of Alexander
by Arrian
Arrian
is considered the best source on the campaigns of Alexander the Great
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Cyrus The Great
Persian revoltBattle of Hyrba Battle of the Persian BorderInvasion of AnatoliaBattle of Pteria Battle of Thymbra Siege of SardisInvasion of BabyloniaBattle of Opis Siege of Babylon Cyrus II of Persia
Persia
(Old Persian: 𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš;[4] New Persian: کوروش Kuruš; Hebrew: כֹּרֶשׁ‬‬, Modern Kōréš, Tiberian Kōréš; c. 600 – 530 BC),[5] commonly known as Cyrus the Great [6] and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid
Achaemenid
Empire, the first Persian Empire.[7] Under his rule, the empire embraced all the previous civilized states of the ancient Near East,[7] expanded vastly and eventually conquered most of Southwest Asia and much of Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Caucasus
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Cambyses
Cambyses II
Cambyses II
(Old Persian: 𐎣𐎲𐎢𐎪𐎡𐎹 Kambūjiya[5][6] Aramaic: כנבוזי‎ Kanbūzī;[7] Ancient Greek: Καμβύσης Kambúsēs; Latin Cambyses; Medieval Hebrew כמבישה‬, Kambisha)[8][9] (d. 522 BC) son of Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
(r. 559–530 BC), was emperor of the Achaemenid Empire. Cambyses' grandfather was Cambyses I, king of Anshan. Following Cyrus the Great's conquest of the Near East
Near East
and Central Asia, Cambyses II further expanded the empire into Egypt during the Late Period by defeating the Egyptian Pharaoh
Pharaoh
Psamtik III
Psamtik III
during the battle of Pelusium
Pelusium
in 525 BC
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