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Gongche
Gongche notation
Gongche notation
or gongchepu is a traditional musical notation method, once popular in ancient China. It uses Chinese characters to represent musical notes. It was named after two of the Chinese characters that were used to represent musical notes, namely "工" gōng and "尺" chě. Since the pronunciation chě for the character "尺" is uncommon, many people call it gongchi notation or gongchipu by mistake[citation needed]. Sheet music
Sheet music
written in this notation is still used for traditional Chinese musical instruments and Chinese operas. However the notation is becoming less popular, replaced by mostly jianpu (numbered musical notation) and sometimes the standard western notation.Contents1 The notes1.1 Basic characters 1.2 Usual variations 1.3 Pronunciation2 Rhythm 3 History and usage 4 External links 5 ReferencesThe notes[edit] Basic characters[edit] The notation usually uses a movable "do" system
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Traditional Chinese Characters
Traditional Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字; simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字; Pinyin: Zhèngtǐzì/Fántǐzì) are Chinese characters
Chinese characters
in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most commonly the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau
Macau
or in the Kangxi Dictionary
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Simplified Chinese Characters
Simplified Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(简化字; jiǎnhuàzì)[1] are standardized Chinese characters
Chinese characters
prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy.[2] They are officially used in the People's Republic of China
Republic of China
and Singapore. Traditional Chinese
Traditional Chinese
characters are currently used in Hong Kong, Macau, and the Republic of China
Republic of China
(Taiwan)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Sanshin
The sanshin (三線, literally "three strings") is an Okinawan musical instrument and precursor of the mainland Japanese (and Amami
Amami
Islands) shamisen ( 三味線). Often likened to a banjo, it consists of a snakeskin-covered body, neck and three strings.Contents1 Origins 2 Construction 3 Tuning 4 Musical Notation 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksOrigins[edit] Its close resemblance in both appearance and name to the Chinese sanxian suggests Chinese origins, the then Ryūkyū Kingdom (pre-Japanese Okinawa) having very close ties with Imperial China. In the 16th century, the sanshin reached the Japanese trading port at Sakai in Osaka, Japan
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Okinawan Music
Okinawan music
Okinawan music
(沖縄音楽, Okinawa ongaku), also known as Ryukyuan music (琉球音楽, Ryūkyū ongaku), is the music of the Okinawa Islands of southwestern Japan. In modern times, it may also refer to the musical traditions of Okinawa Prefecture, which also covers the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands, and sometimes the Amami Islands.Contents1 Genres1.1 Classical music 1.2 Folk music 1.3 Popular music1.3.1 New folk songs 1.3.2 Okinawa pop2 Instrumentation 3 Tonality 4 Notable Okinawan music 5 Okinawan musicians and musical ensembles5.1 Traditional 5.2 Pop6 Media 7 References 8 External linksGenres[edit] A dichotomy widely accepted by Okinawan people is the separation of musical traditions into koten (classical) and min'yō (folk).[citation needed] Okinawa was once part of the Ryukyu Kingdom
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Kunkunshi
Kunkunshi
Kunkunshi
(工工四  (Okinawan) pronounced [kuŋkunshiː]) is the traditional notation system by which music is recorded in the Ryukyu Islands. The term kunkunshi originally referred to the first three notes of a widely known Chinese melody, although today it is used almost exclusively in reference to the sheet music.[1] Kunkunshi
Kunkunshi
is believed to have been first developed by Mongaku Terukina or by his student Choki Yakabi (jp) (屋嘉比 朝寄, Yakabi Chōki) in the early to mid-1700s. However, it was not until the end of the 19th century that the form became standardized for writing sanshin music.[2] Yakabi is attributed to having written the earliest known, surviving collection of kunkunshi. The Yakabi Kunkunshi consists of 117 compositions written in the kaki nagashi style. In this form, the sanshin finger positions are written in a flowing style with no indication of rhythm
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Tablature
Tablature
Tablature
(or tabulature, or tab for short) is a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches. Tablature
Tablature
is common for fretted stringed instruments such as the lute, vihuela, or guitar, as well as many free reed aerophones such as the harmonica. Tablature
Tablature
was common during the Renaissance and Baroque eras, and is commonly used today in notating rock, pop, folk, ragtime, bluegrass, and blues music. Three types of organ tablature were used in Europe: German, Spanish and Italian
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Song Dynasty
The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
(/sɔːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song following his usurpation of the throne of Later Zhou, ending the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The Song often came into conflict with the contemporary Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties in the north and was conquered by the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Song government was the first in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy. This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder, as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass. The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern
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Tang Dynasty
The Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
or the Tang Empire
Empire
(/tɑːŋ/;[3] Chinese: 唐朝[a]) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture.[5] Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty, and the Tang capital at Chang'an
Chang'an
(present-day Xi'an) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire
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Percussion
A percussion instrument is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice.[1] The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, triangle and tambourine. However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens, or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion
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Modern Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Varieties Of Chinese
Chinese, also known as Sinitic,[a] is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible. The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages, with variation particularly strong in the more rugged southeast. These varieties, often called "dialects", have been classified into seven to ten groups, the largest being Mandarin (e.g. Beijing dialect), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese), Min (e.g. Hokkien), and Yue (e.g. Cantonese). Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology, and to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax. Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
final consonants. All have phonemic tones, with northern varieties tending to have fewer distinctions than southern ones
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Cantonese Opera
The Cantonese
Cantonese
opera (Chinese: 粵劇) is one of the major categories in Chinese opera, originating in southern China's Guangdong
Guangdong
Province. It is popular in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Macau
Macau
and among the Chinese community in Southeast Asia
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Radical (Chinese Character)
A Chinese radical (Chinese: 部首; pinyin: bùshǒu; literally: "section header") is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary. This component is often a semantic indicator (that is, an indicator of the meaning of the character), though in some cases the original semantic connection has become obscure, owing to changes in character meaning over time
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Kunqu
Kunqu
Kunqu
(Chinese: 崑曲), also known as Kunju (崑劇), Kun opera or Kunqu
Kunqu
Opera, is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera. It evolved from the Kunshan
Kunshan
melody, and dominated Chinese theatre
Chinese theatre
from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The style originated in the Wu cultural area
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