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Gongche
GONGCHE NOTATION or GONGCHEPU is a traditional musical notation method, once popular in ancient China
China
. It uses Chinese characters
Chinese characters
to represent musical notes . It was named after two of the Chinese characters that were used to represent musical notes, namely "工" gōng and "尺" chě. Since the pronunciation chě for the character "尺" is uncommon, many people call it GONGCHI NOTATION or GONGCHIPU by mistake. Sheet music
Sheet music
written in this notation is still used for traditional Chinese musical instruments and Chinese operas . However the notation is becoming less popular, replaced by mostly jianpu (numbered musical notation ) and sometimes the standard western notation
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Modern Standard Chinese
STANDARD CHINESE, also known as MODERN STANDARD MANDARIN, STANDARD MANDARIN, or simply MANDARIN, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore
Singapore
. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing dialect , its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects
Mandarin dialects
, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese . Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties. Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is an analytic language , though with many compound words
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Percussion
A PERCUSSION INSTRUMENT is a musical instrument that is sounded by being struck or scraped by a beater (including attached or enclosed beaters or rattles ); struck, scraped or rubbed by hand; or struck against another similar instrument. The percussion family is believed to include the oldest musical instruments, following the human voice . The percussion section of an orchestra most commonly contains instruments such as timpani , snare drum , bass drum , cymbals , triangle and tambourine . However, the section can also contain non-percussive instruments, such as whistles and sirens , or a blown conch shell. Percussive techniques can also be applied to the human body, as in body percussion . On the other hand, keyboard instruments , such as the celesta , are not normally part of the percussion section, but keyboard percussion instruments such as the glockenspiel and xylophone (which do not have piano keyboards) are included
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Varieties Of Chinese
CHINESE, also known as SINITIC, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties , many of which are not mutually intelligible . The differences are similar to those within the Romance languages
Romance languages
, with variation particularly strong in the more rugged southeast. These varieties, often called "dialects", have been classified into seven to ten groups, the largest being Mandarin (e.g. Beijing dialect ), Wu (e.g. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
), Min (e.g. Taiwanese Hokkien ), and Yue (e.g. Cantonese ). Chinese varieties differ most in their phonology , and to a lesser extent in vocabulary and syntax . Southern varieties tend to have fewer initial consonants than northern and central varieties, but more often preserve the Middle Chinese final consonants
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Cantonese Opera
The CANTONESE OPERA (Chinese : 粵劇) is one of the major categories in Chinese opera , originating in southern China's Guangdong
Guangdong
Province. It is popular in Guangdong, Guangxi
Guangxi
, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
, Macau
Macau
and among the Chinese community in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. Like all versions of Chinese opera, it is a traditional Chinese art form, involving music, singing, martial arts , acrobatics , and acting
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Kunqu
KUNQU (Chinese : 崑曲), also known as KUNJU (崑劇), KUN OPERA or KUNQU OPERA, is one of the oldest extant forms of Chinese opera
Chinese opera
. It evolved from the Kunshan melody, and dominated Chinese theatre from the 16th to the 18th centuries. The style originated in the Wu cultural area . It is listed as one of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO
UNESCO
since 2001
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Radical (Chinese Character)
A Chinese RADICAL (Chinese : 部首; pinyin : bùshǒu; literally: "section header") is a graphical component of a Chinese character under which the character is traditionally listed in a Chinese dictionary. This component is often a semantic indicator (that is, an indicator of the meaning of the character), though in some cases the original semantic connection has become obscure, owing to changes in character meaning over time. In other cases, the radical may be a phonetic component or even an artificially extracted portion of the character. The English term "radical" is based on an analogy between the structure of characters and inflection of words in European languages. Radicals are also sometimes called "classifiers", but this name is more commonly applied to grammatical classifiers (measure words)
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Tang Dynasty
The TANG DYNASTY or the TANG EMPIRE (Chinese : 唐朝 ) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty
Sui dynasty
and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period . It is generally regarded as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Its territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
, and the Tang capital at Chang\'an (present-day Xi\'an ) was the most populous city in the world. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family (李), who seized power during the decline and collapse of the Sui Empire. The dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty (690–705) and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant
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Song Dynasty
The SONG DYNASTY (Chinese : 宋朝; pinyin : Sòng cháo; 960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. It succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period , coincided with the Liao and Western Xia
Western Xia
dynasties, and was followed by the Yuan dynasty
Yuan dynasty
. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or true paper money nationally and the first Chinese government to establish a permanent standing navy . This dynasty also saw the first known use of gunpowder , as well as the first discernment of true north using a compass . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
is divided into two distinct periods, Northern and Southern. During the NORTHERN SONG (Chinese : 北宋; 960–1127), the Song capital was in the northern city of Bianjing (now Kaifeng ) and the dynasty controlled most of what is now Eastern China
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Sanshin
The SANSHIN (三線, literally "three strings") is an Okinawan musical instrument and precursor of the Japanese shamisen . Often likened to a banjo , it consists of a snakeskin -covered body, neck and three strings. Museo Azzarini collection CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Tuning * 3 Musical Notation System * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links HISTORYIs close resemblance in both appearance and name to the Chinese sanxian suggests its Chinese origins, the old Ryūkyū Kingdom (pre-Japanese Okinawa) having very close ties with China. In the 16th century, the sanshin reached the Japanese trading port at Sakai in Osaka , Japan
Japan
. In mainland Japan, it evolved into the larger shamisen . In mainland Japan, many people refer to the sanshin as jabisen (蛇皮線, literally "snake -skin strings") or jamisen (蛇三線, "snake three strings") because the body of the instrument has a snakeskin covering
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Okinawan Music
OKINAWAN MUSIC (沖縄音楽, Okinawa ongaku), also known as RYUKYUAN MUSIC (琉球音楽, Ryūkyū ongaku), is the music of the Okinawa Islands of southwestern Japan
Japan
. In modern times, it may also refer to the musical traditions of Okinawa Prefecture , which also covers the Miyako and Yaeyama Islands , and sometimes the Amami Islands . CONTENTS* 1 Genres * 1.1 Classical music * 1.2 Folk music * 1.3 Popular music * 1.3.1 New folk songs * 1.3.2 Okinawa pop * 2 Instrumentation * 3 Tonality * 4 Notable Okinawan music
Okinawan music
* 5 Okinawan musicians and musical ensembles * 5.1 Traditional * 5.2 Pop * 6 Media * 7 References * 8 External links GENRESA dichotomy widely accepted by Okinawan people is the separation of musical traditions into koten (classical) and min\'yō (folk). Okinawa was once part of the Ryukyu Kingdom
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Kunkunshi
KUNKUNSHI (工工四 (Okinawan ) pronounced ) is the traditional notation system by which music is recorded in the Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands
. The term kunkunshi originally referred to the first three notes of a widely known Chinese melody, although today it is used almost exclusively in reference to the sheet music. Kunkunshi
Kunkunshi
is believed to have been first developed by Mongaku Terukina or by his student Choki Yakabi (jp) (屋嘉比 朝寄, Yakabi Chōki) in the early to mid-1700s. However, it was not until the end of the 19th century that the form became standardized for writing sanshin music. Yakabi is attributed to having written the earliest known, surviving collection of kunkunshi. The Yakabi Kunkunshi
Kunkunshi
consists of 117 compositions written in the kaki nagashi style. In this form, the sanshin finger positions are written in a flowing style with no indication of rhythm
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Tablature
TABLATURE (or TABULATURE, or TAB for short) is a form of musical notation indicating instrument fingering rather than musical pitches. Tablature
Tablature
is common for fretted stringed instruments such as the lute , vihuela , or guitar , as well as many free reed aerophones such as the harmonica . Tablature
Tablature
was common during the Renaissance and Baroque eras, and is commonly used today in notating rock, pop, folk, ragtime, bluegrass, and blues music. Three types of organ tablature were used in Europe: German, Spanish and Italian. There are several types of ocarina tabulature. To distinguish standard musical notation from tablature, the former is usually called "staff notation" or just "notation"
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Chinese Language
LEGEND: Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers Major Chinese-speaking settlements THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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Octave
In music , an OCTAVE (Latin : octavus: eighth) or PERFECT OCTAVE is the interval between one musical pitch and another with half or double its frequency . It is defined by ANSI as the unit of frequency level when the base of the logarithm is two. The octave relationship is a natural phenomenon that has been referred to as the "basic miracle of music", the use of which is "common in most musical systems". The most important musical scales are typically written using eight notes, and the interval between the first and last notes is an octave. For example, the C major scale is typically written C D E F G A B C, the initial and final Cs being an octave apart. Two notes separated by an octave have the same letter name and are of the same pitch class . Three commonly cited examples of melodies featuring the perfect octave as their opening interval are "Singin\' in the Rain ", "Over the Rainbow ", and " Stranger on the Shore "
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