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Gonfaloniere
The Gonfaloniere
Gonfaloniere
was the holder of a highly prestigious communal office in medieval and Renaissance Italy, notably in Florence
Florence
and the Papal States.[1] The name derives from gonfalone, the term used for the banners of such communes. In Florence, the office was known as Gonfaloniere of Justice
Gonfaloniere of Justice
and was held by one of the nine citizens selected by the drawing lots every two months, who formed the city's government, or Signoria.[citation needed] In the papal states, it was known as Gonfaloniere
Gonfaloniere
of the Church or Papal Gonfaloniere.[2] Other central and northern Italian communes, from Spoleto
Spoleto
to the County of Savoy, elected or appointed gonfalonieri. The Bentivoglio family of Bologna
Bologna
aspired to this office during the sixteenth century
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Spoleto
Spoleto
Spoleto
(Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia
Perugia
in east-central Umbria
Umbria
on a foothill of the Apennines. It is 20 km (12 mi) S. of Trevi, 29 km (18 mi) N. of Terni, 63 km (39 mi) SE of Perugia; 212 km (132 mi) SE of Florence; and 126 km (78 mi) N of Rome.Contents1 History 2 Main sights2.1 Ancient and lay buildings 2.2 Churches3 Culture 4 Sport 5 Twin towns – sister cities 6 Frazioni 7 References 8 External linksHistory[edit] Spoleto
Spoleto
was situated on the eastern branch of the Via Flaminia, which forked into two roads at Narni
Narni
and rejoined at Forum Flaminii, near Foligno. An ancient road also ran hence to Nursia. The Ponte Sanguinario of the 1st century BC still exists
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Bologna
Bologna
Bologna
(/bəˈloʊniə/; Italian: [boˈloɲːa] ( listen); Emilian: Bulåggna IPA: [buˈlʌɲːa]; Latin: Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people. Of Etruscan origin, the city has been a major urban centre for centuries, first under the Etruscans, then under the Romans (Bononia), then again in the Middle Ages, as a free municipality and signoria, when it was among the largest European cities by population
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Italy In The Middle Ages
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t eThe history of the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
during the medieval period can be roughly defined as the time between the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance. Late Antiquity
Late Antiquity
in Italy
Italy
lingered on into the 7th century under the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
and the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
under the Justinian dynasty, the Byzantine Papacy
Byzantine Papacy
until the mid 8th century. The "Middle Ages" proper begin as the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
was weakening under the pressure of the Muslim
Muslim
conquests, and the Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna
finally fell under Lombard rule in 751
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Italian Renaissance
Transition from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the Modern era Renaissance
Renaissance
spreads to the rest of Europe Development of capitalism, banking, merchantilism and accounting: beginning of the European Great Divergence Explorers from the Italian maritime r
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Florence
Florence
Florence
(/ˈflɒrəns/ FLORR-ənss; Italian: Firenze [fiˈrɛntse] ( listen))[2] is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area.[3] Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era.[4] It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages".[5] A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions.[6] From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portalv t eThe Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Italian: Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: [ˈstato della ˈkjɛːza]; Latin: Status Ecclesiasticus;[2] also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche, Umbria
Umbria
and Romagna, and portions of Emilia
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Condottieri
Condottieri
Condottieri
(Italian: [kondotˈtjɛːri]; singular condottiero and condottiere) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries) contracted by the Italian city-states
Italian city-states
and the Papacy[1] from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance. In Renaissance
Renaissance
Italian, condottiero meant "contractor". In contemporary Italian, "condottiero" acquired the broader meaning of "military leader", not restricted to mercenaries.[2] In Italian historiography, Renaissance
Renaissance
mercenary captains are usually called capitani di ventura (literally "venture captains")
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Signoria Of Florence
A signoria (Italian pronunciation: [siɲɲoˈriːa]; from signore [siɲˈɲoːre], or "lord"; an abstract noun meaning (roughly) "government; governing authority; de facto sovereignty; lordship"; plural: signorie) was the governing authority in many of the Italian city states during the medieval and renaissance periods.Contents1 Perennial "power vacuum" of medieval Italy 2 Signoria versus the commune 3 Types 4 Use of word 5 See also 6 ReferencesPerennial "power vacuum" of medieval Italy[edit] In the sixth century AD, the Emperor
Emperor
Justinian
Justinian
reconquered Italy
Italy
from the Ostrogoths
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Medieval Commune
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city. These took many forms and varied widely in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon. They had greater development in central-northern Italy, where they became city-states based on partial democracy. At the same time in Germany
Germany
they became free cities, independent from local nobility.Contents1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Social order 4 Rural communes 5 Evolution in Italy
Italy
and decline in Europe 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Sources 9 External linksEtymology[edit] The English and French word "commune" (Italian: comune) appears in Latin records in various forms
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County Of Savoy
The County
County
of Savoy
Savoy
(French: Comté de Savoie, Italian: Contea di Savoia) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state.Contents1 History 2 Counts of Savoy 3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Further readingHistory[edit] See also: Sapaudia
Sapaudia
and House of Savoy Chambéry
Chambéry
CastleSapaudia, stretching south of Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
from the Rhône
Rhône
River to the Western Alps, had been part of Upper Burgundy
Upper Burgundy
ruled by the Bosonid duke Hucbert from the mid 9th century
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Capitano Del Popolo
Captain of the People (Italian: Capitano del popolo) was an administrative title used in Italy
Italy
during the Middle Ages. It was created in the early 13th century when the populares, the increasingly wealthy classes of commoners (merchants, professionals, craftsmen and, in maritime cities, ship-owners) began to acquire roles in the communal administration of various Italian city-states, and needed a municipal officeholder able to counter the political power of the nobles (called potentes), represented usually by the podestà (a title used for chief magistrates and other top administrators in medieval Italian cities)
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House Of Bentivoglio
Bentivoglio (Latin: Bentivoius) was an Italian family that became the de facto rulers of Bologna
Bologna
and responsible for giving the city its political autonomy during the Renaissance.Contents1 History 2 Rulers of Bologna 3 Other notable family members 4 Power base 5 SourcesHistory[edit] The presence of the Bentivoglio family
Bentivoglio family
is first recorded in the city in 1323
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Gonfalone
The gonfalon, gonfanon, gonfalone (from the early Italian confalone) is a type of heraldic flag or banner, often pointed, swallow-tailed, or with several streamers, and suspended from a crossbar in an identical manner to the ancient Roman vexillum. It was first adopted by Italian medieval communes, and later, by local Guilds, Corporations and Districts. The difference between a gonfanon with long tails and a standard is that a gonfanon displays the device on the non-tailed area, and the standard displays badges down the whole length of the flag.[1] A gonfalon can include a badge or coat of arms, or decoration. Today, every Italian comune (municipality) has a gonfalon sporting its coat of arms. The gonfalon has long been used for ecclesiastical ceremonies and processions
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Podestà
Podestà
Podestà
(pronounced [podeˈsta]) is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages. Mainly it meant the chief magistrate of a city state, the counterpart to similar positions in other cities that went by other names, e.g. rettori ("rectors"), but it could also mean the local administrator, who was the representative of the Holy Roman Emperor. Currently, Podestà
Podestà
is the title of mayors in Italian-speaking municipalities of Graubünden
Graubünden
in Switzerland.Contents1 Etymology 2 Italian history2.1 Fascist era3 Podesteria 4 Frisian Potestaat 5 See also 6 Reading 7 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The term derives from the Latin
Latin
word potestas, meaning power
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