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Gonfaloniere
The GONFALONIERE was the holder of a highly prestigious communal office in medieval and Renaissance Italy , notably in Florence
Florence
and the Papal States
Papal States
. The name derives from gonfalone , the term used for the banners of such communes. In Florence, the office was known as Gonfaloniere of Justice and was held by one of the nine citizens selected by the drawing lots every two months, who formed the city's government, or Signoria . In the papal states, it was known as Gonfaloniere of the Church or Papal Gonfaloniere. Other central and northern Italian communes, from Spoleto
Spoleto
to the County of Savoy
County of Savoy
, elected or appointed gonfalonieri. The Bentivoglio family of Bologna
Bologna
aspired to this office during the sixteenth century
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County Of Savoy
The COUNTY OF SAVOY (French : Comté de Savoie, Italian : Contea di Savoia) was a State of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
which emerged, along with the free communes of Switzerland
Switzerland
, from the collapse of the Burgundian Kingdom in the 11th century. It was the cradle of the future Savoyard state . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Counts of Savoy
Savoy
* 3 See also * 4 Notes * 5 References * 6 Further reading HISTORY See also: Sapaudia and House of Savoy
Savoy
Chambéry Castle Sapaudia , stretching south of Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
from the Rhône
Rhône
River to the Western Alps , had been part of Upper Burgundy ruled by the Bosonid duke Hucbert from the mid 9th century
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Bologna
BOLOGNA (/bəˈloʊniə/ ; Italian: ( listen ); Emilian : Bulåggna IPA: ; Latin : Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna Region in Northern Italy
Italy
. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people. Of Etruscan origin, the city has been a major urban centre for centuries, first under the Romans (Bononia), then again in the Middle Ages , as a free municipality and signoria, when it was among the largest European cities by population . Famous for its towers, churches and lengthy porticoes , Bologna
Bologna
has a well-preserved historical centre, thanks to a careful restoration and conservation policy which began at the end of the 1970s
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Condotieri
CONDOTTIERI (Italian: ; singular CONDOTTIERO and CONDOTTIERE) were the leaders of the professional military free companies (or mercenaries ) contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy from the late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance . In Renaissance Italian, condottiero meant "contractor". In contemporary Italian, "condottiero" acquired the broader meaning of "military leader", not restricted to mercenaries. In Italian historiography, Renaissance mercenary captains are usually called CAPITANI DI VENTURA (literally "venture captains"). The word Condottiere in the English language has come to denote, in the modern sense, any hired soldier
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Medieval Commune
MEDIEVAL COMMUNES in the European Middle Ages
Middle Ages
had sworn allegiances of mutual defense (both physical defense and of traditional freedoms) among the citizens of a town or city. They took many forms, and varied widely in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon. They had the greater development in central-northern Italy , where they were real city-states based on partial democracy , while in Germany
Germany
they became free cities , independent from local nobility. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Origins * 3 Social order * 4 Rural communes * 5 Evolution in Italy
Italy
and decline in Europe * 6 See also * 7 Footnotes * 8 Sources * 9 External links ETYMOLOGYThe English and French word "commune" (Italian : comune) appears in Latin records in various forms
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Spoleto
SPOLETO (Latin SPOLETIUM) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia
Perugia
in east-central Umbria
Umbria
on a foothill of the Apennines . It is 20 km (12 mi) S. of Trevi , 29 km (18 mi) N. of Terni
Terni
, 63 km (39 mi) SE of Perugia
Perugia
; 212 km (132 mi) SE of Florence
Florence
; and 126 km (78 mi) N of Rome
Rome
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Main sights * 2.1 Ancient and lay buildings * 2.2 Churches * 3 Culture * 4 Sport * 5 Twin towns – sister cities * 6 Frazioni * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORY Spoleto
Spoleto
was situated on the eastern branch of the Via Flaminia , which forked into two roads at Narni
Narni
and rejoined at Forum Flaminii , near Foligno
Foligno

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Italian Renaissance
Timeline Italy
Italy
portal * v * t * e The ITALIAN RENAISSANCE (Italian : Rinascimento ) was the earliest manifestation of the general European Renaissance
Renaissance
, a period of great cultural change and achievement that began in Italy
Italy
during the 14th century and lasted until the 16th century, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe
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Italy In The Middle Ages
MIDDLE or THE MIDDLE may refer to: * Centre (geometry)
Centre (geometry)
, the point equally distant from the outer limits.CONTENTS * 1 Places * 2 Music * 3 Other uses * 4 See also PLACES * Middle (sheading) , a subdivision of the Isle of Man * Middle Bay (other)
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Papal States
Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Catholicism portal * v * t * e The PAPAL STATES, officially the STATE OF THE CHURCH (Italian : Stato della Chiesa, Italian pronunciation: ; Latin : Status Ecclesiae), were territories in the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
under the sovereign direct rule of the pope , from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy
Italy
from roughly the 8th century until the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
was unified in 1861 by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia . At their zenith, they covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio (which includes Rome), Marche
Marche
, Umbria and Romagna , and portions of Emilia . These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope , as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy
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Florence
FLORENCE (/ˈflɒrəns/ FLOR-əns ; Italian : Firenze ( listen )) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany
Tuscany
. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,083 inhabitants in 2013, and over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence
Florence
was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era. It is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance
Renaissance
, and has been called "the Athens
Athens
of the Middle Ages ". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the recently established Kingdom of Italy
Italy

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Capitano Del Popolo
CAPTAIN OF THE PEOPLE (Italian : ''CAPITANO DEL POPOLO\'\') was an administrative title used in Italy
Italy
during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was created in the early 13th century when the populares, the increasingly wealthy classes of commoners (merchants, professionals, craftsmen and, in maritime cities, ship-owners) began to acquire roles in the communal administration of various Italian city-states, and needed a municipal officeholder able to counter the political power of the nobles (called potentes), represented usually by the podestà (a title used for chief magistrates and other top administrators in medieval Italian cities). One of the first capitani del popolo was created in Bologna
Bologna
in northern Italy, appointed in 1228
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Podestà
PODESTà (pronounced ) is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities beginning in the later Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Mainly it meant the chief magistrate of a city state, the counterpart to similar positions in other cities that went by other names, e.g. rettori ("rectors"), but it could also mean the local administrator, who was the representative of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
. Currently, Podestà
Podestà
is the title of mayors in Italian -speaking municipalities of Graubünden in Switzerland
Switzerland
. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Italian history * 2.1 Fascist era * 3 Podesteria * 4 Frisian Potestaat * 5 See also * 6 Reading * 7 References ETYMOLOGYThe term derives from the Latin
Latin
word potestas , meaning power
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House Of Bentivoglio
BENTIVOGLIO ( Latin : Bentivoius) was an Italian family that became the de facto rulers of Bologna and responsible for giving the city its political autonomy during the Renaissance . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Rulers of Bologna * 3 Other notable family members * 4 Power base * 5 Sources HISTORYThe presence of the Bentivoglio family is first recorded in the city in 1323. Originally from the castle of that name in the neighborhood of Bologna, the family claimed descent from Enzio , King of Sardinia , an illegitimate son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor . During the fourteenth century, the family, belonging to one of the workingmen's guilds at Bologna, had gained power as pro-papist Guelph leaders in the fourteenth century. Giovanni II Bentivoglio
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Gonfalone
The GONFALON, GONFANON, GONFALONE (from the early Italian confalone) is a type of heraldic flag or banner , often pointed, swallow-tailed, or with several streamers, and suspended from a crossbar in an identical manner to the ancient Roman vexillum . It was first adopted by Italian medieval communes , and later, by local Guilds, Corporations and Districts. The difference between a gonfanon with long tails and a standard is that a gonfanon displays the device on the non-tailed area, and the standard displays badges down the whole length of the flag. A gonfalon can include a badge or coat of arms, or ornamentations of fancy design. Today every Italian comune (municipality) has a gonfalon sporting its coat of arms . The gonfalon has long been used for ecclesiastical ceremonies and processions. The papal "ombrellino ", a symbol of the pope, is often mistakenly called "gonfalone" by the Italians because the pope's ceremonial umbrella was often depicted on the banner
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Signoria Of Florence
The SIGNORIA was the government of medieval and renaissance Florence . Its nine members, the Priori, were chosen from the ranks of the guilds of the city: six of them from the major guilds, and two from the minor guilds. The ninth became the Gonfaloniere of Justice . SELECTION OF MEMBERSThe names of all guild members over thirty years old were put in eight leather bags called borse. Every two months these bags were taken from the church of Santa Croce , where they were ordinarily kept, and in a short ceremony drawn out at random. Only men who were not in debt, had not served a recent term, and had no relation to the names of men already drawn, would be considered eligible for office. SERVICE IN THE SIGNORIAImmediately after they were elected, the nine were expected to move into the Palazzo della Signoria
Palazzo della Signoria
, where they would remain for the two months of their office
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