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Gomel
Gomel
Gomel
(also Homieĺ, Homiel, Homel or Homyel’;[2] Belarusian: Го́мель, Łacinka: Homiel, pronounced [ˈɣomʲelʲ], Russian: Го́мель, pronounced [ˈɡomʲɪlʲ]) is the administrative centre of Gomel Region
Gomel Region
and with 526,872 inhabita
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Eastern Orthodox Church
The Eastern Orthodox
Eastern Orthodox
Church,[1] also known as the Orthodox Church,[2] or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church,[3] is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.[4][5] As one of the oldest religious institutions in the world, it has played a prominent role in the history and culture of Eastern Europe, Greece
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Jan Tarnowski
Jan Amor Tarnowski (Latin: Joannes Tarnovius; 1488 – 16 May 1561[1]) was a Polish nobleman, knight, military commander, military theoretician, and statesman of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland. He was Grand Crown Hetman
Hetman
from 1527, and was the founder of the city of Tarnopol, where he built the Ternopil Castle
Ternopil Castle
and the Ternopil Pond.Contents1 History 2 Family 3 Important Works 4 Notes 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] Tarnowski was born in 1488, the son of Jan Amor Junior Tarnowski, castellan of Kraków, and his second wife Barbara of Rożnów, granddaughter of the knight Zawisza the Black. He was a scion of an important family clan started in the mid-14th century by Spycimir Leliwita, castellan of Kraków
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The Tale Of Igor's Campaign
The Tale of Igor's Campaign
The Tale of Igor's Campaign
(Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игорєвѣ, Slovo o plŭku Igorevě) is an anonymous epic poem written in the Old East Slavic language. The title is occasionally translated as The Tale of the Campaign of Igor, The Song of Igor's Campaign, The Lay of Igor's Campaign, The Lay of the Host of Igor, and The Lay of the Warfare Waged by Igor. The poem gives an account of a failed raid of Igor Svyatoslavich
Igor Svyatoslavich
(d. 1202) against the Polovtsians
Polovtsians
of the Don River region
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Volost
Volost (Russian: во́лость, IPA: [ˈvoləsʲtʲ]) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Eastern Europe. In earlier East Slavic history, volost was a name for the territory ruled by the knyaz, a principality; either as an absolute ruler or with varying degree of autonomy from the Velikiy Knyaz
Knyaz
(Grand Prince). Starting from the end of the 14th century, volost was a unit of administrative division in Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland, Muscovy, lands of modern Latvia and Ukraine. Since about the 16th century it was a part of provincial districts, that were called "uyezd" in Muscovy
Muscovy
and the later Russian Empire. Each uyezd had several volosts that were subordinated to the uyezd city. After the abolition of Russian serfdom
Russian serfdom
in 1861, volost became a unit of peasant's local self-rule
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Great Duchy Of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
was a European state from the 13th century[1] until 1795,[2] when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and Austria. The state was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic Baltic tribes
Baltic tribes
from Aukštaitija.[3][4][5] The Grand Duchy later expanded to include large portions of the former Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
and other Slavic lands, including territory of present-day Belarus, parts of Ukraine, Poland
Poland
and Russia
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Algirdas
Algirdas
Algirdas
(Belarusian: Альгерд, Ukrainian: Ольгерд, Polish: Olgierd; c. 1296 – May 1377) was a ruler of medieval Lithuania. He ruled the Lithuanians
Lithuanians
and Ruthenians
Ruthenians
from 1345 to 1377. With the help of his brother Kęstutis
Kęstutis
(who defended the western border of the Duchy) he created an empire stretching from the present Baltic states
Baltic states
to the Black Sea
Black Sea
and to within fifty miles of Moscow.Contents1 Background 2 Expansion of Lithuania 3 Religion and death 4 Assessment 5 See also 6 ReferencesBackground[edit] Algirdas
Algirdas
was one of the seven sons of Grand Prince Gediminas. Before his death in 1341, Gediminas
Gediminas
divided his domain, leaving his youngest son Jaunutis in possession of the capital, Vilnius
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Svitrigaila
Švitrigaila
Švitrigaila
(before 1370 – 10 February 1452) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1430 to 1432.[2] He spent most of his life in largely unsuccessful dynastic struggles against his cousins Vytautas
Vytautas
and Sigismund Kęstutaitis.Contents1 Early life and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
rebellion 2 Struggle against Vytautas
Vytautas
(1392–1430)2.1 Defection to Hungary 2.2 Defection to Prussia 2.3 Defection to Moscow and imprisonment 2.4 Escape to Hungary and reconciliation3 Struggle against Sigismund3.1 Grand Duke of Lithuania 3.2 Coup and civil war4 Later years 5 Notes 6 ReferencesEarly life and Vitebsk
Vitebsk
rebellion[edit] Švitrigaila
Švitrigaila
was born to Algirdas, Grand Duke of Lithuania, and his second wife Uliana of Tver
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Mozhaysk
Mozhaysk[6] (Russian: Можайск, IPA: [mɐˈʐajsk]) is a town and the administrative center of Mozhaysky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia, located 110 kilometers (68 mi) to the west of Moscow, on the historic road leading to Smolensk
Smolensk
and then to Poland. Population: 31,363 (2010 Census);[3] 31,459 (2002 Census);[7] 30,735 (1989 Census).[8]Contents1 History 2 Administrative and municipal status 3 Architecture 4 Trivia 5 Twin towns and sister cities 6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 Sources7 External linksHistory[edit] It was first mentioned in 1231 as an appanage of Chernigov;[citation needed] it was named after the Mozhay (Mozhaya) River, whose name is of Baltic origin (cf. Lithuanian mažoja 'small').[9] Later it was an important stronghold of the Smolensk
Smolensk
dynasty, at one time owned by Theodore the Black
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Grand Duchy Of Moscow
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality
Principality
of Moscow
Moscow
(Russian: Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Latin: Moscovia, was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow
Moscow
and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia. The state originated with Daniel I, who inherited Moscow
Moscow
in 1283, eclipsing and eventually absorbing its parent duchy of Vladimir-Suzdal by the 1320s
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Muscovite-Lithuanian War
The Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars
(also known as Russo-Lithuanian Wars, or just either Muscovite Wars or Lithuanian Wars)[nb 1] were a series of wars between the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, allied with the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Moscow. After several defeats at the hands of Ivan III
Ivan III
and Vasily III, the Lithuanians were increasingly reliant on Polish aid, which eventually became an important factor in the creation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Before the first series of wars in the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
had already gained control of a lot of Rus' territories, from Kiev
Kiev
to Mozhaisk, following the collapse of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
after the Mongol invasions
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Jerzy Radziwiłł
Jerzy Radziwiłł
Radziwiłł
(Lithuanian: Jurgis Radvila) (1480 – April 1541) was a Polish–Lithuanian noble. He was Deputy Cup-Bearer of Lithuania from 1510, voivode of Kiev Voivodeship from 1510, Field Hetman
Hetman
of Lithuania in 1521, castellan of Trakai
Trakai
from 1522, castellan of Vilnius
Vilnius
from 1527, Marshal of the Court from 1528, Grand Hetman
Hetman
of Lithuania from 1531, Starost of Hrodna, Namiestnik
Namiestnik
of Vilnius, Maišiagala, Mereck, Utena, Mozyrsk, Lida, Skidal, Bielica[disambiguation needed], Kryńsk and Oziersk
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Sigismund Kęstutaitis
Sigismund
Sigismund
Kęstutaitis (Lithuanian: Žygimantas I Kęstutaitis; Polish: Zygmunt Kiejstutowicz; c. 1365 – 20 March 1440) was the Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
from 1432 to 1440. Sigismund
Sigismund
was his baptismal name; Sigismund's pagan Lithuanian birth name is unknown. He was the son of the Grand Duke of Lithuania
Grand Duke of Lithuania
Kęstutis
Kęstutis
and his wife Birutė. After the death of Kęstutis, he was a prisoner of Jogaila
Jogaila
from 1382–1384. Sigismund
Sigismund
was baptized in Catholic rite in 1383. In 1384, he escaped captivity and joined his brother Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great, who allied himself with the Teutonic Knights
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Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
(Ukrainian: Новгород-Сіверський, Novhorod Siverskyi, Ukrainian pronunciation: [ˈnɔwɦorod ˈsʲiwersʲkɪj]; Russian: Но́вгород-Се́верский, Novgorod-Seversky; Polish: Nowogród Siewierski) is a historic city in Chernihiv Oblast
Chernihiv Oblast
(province) of Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
Raion, though it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance and does not belong to the raion. Novhorod-Siverskyi
Novhorod-Siverskyi
is situated on the bank of the Desna River, 330 km from the capital, Kiev, and 45 km south of the Russian border. Population: 13,762 (2015 est.)[1]Contents1 History 2 Architecture 3 Gallery 4 External linksHistory[edit] The town was first chronicled in 1044
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Starostwo
Starostwo
Starostwo
(Polish: [staˈrɔstfa], "eldership"; Lithuanian: seniūnija; Belarusian: староства, translit. starostva; German: Starostei), from the 14th century in the Polish Crown and later through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta
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Powiat
A powiat (pronounced [ˈpɔvʲat]; Polish plural: powiaty) is the second-level unit of local government and administration in Poland, equivalent to a county, district or prefecture (LAU-1, formerly NUTS-4) in other countries. The term "powiat" is most often translated into English as "county" or "district". A powiat is part of a larger unit, the voivodeship (Polish województwo) or province. A powiat is usually subdivided into gminas (in English, often referred to as "communes" or "municipalities"). Major towns and cities, however, function as separate counties in their own right, without subdivision into gminas. They are termed "city counties" (powiaty grodzkie or, more formally, miasta na prawach powiatu) and have roughly the same status as former county boroughs in the UK. The other type of powiats are termed "land counties" (powiaty ziemskie). As of 2008, there were 379 powiat-level entities: 314 land counties, and 65 city counties
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