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Gojoseon
GOJOSEON, originally named JOSEON, was an ancient Korean kingdom. The addition of Go (고, 古), meaning "ancient", distinguishes it from the other kingdoms called Joseon
Joseon
. The founding legend of Gojoseon, which is recorded in the Samguk Yusa (1281), states that the country was established in 2333 BC by Dangun , said to be the offspring of a heavenly prince and a bear-woman in the work. Though a mythological figure for whom no concrete evidence has been found, the account has played an important role in developing Korean identity. Today, the founding date of Gojoseon
Gojoseon
is officially celebrated as the National Foundation Day in North Korea
North Korea
and South Korea
Korea

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Hanja
HANJA ( Hangul
Hangul
: 한자; Hanja: 漢字; Korean pronunciation: ) is the Korean name
Korean name
for Chinese characters
Chinese characters
(Chinese : 漢字; pinyin : hànzì). More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language
Korean language
with Korean pronunciation . Hanja-mal or Hanja-eo (the latter is more used) refers to words that can be written with Hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "Hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because Hanja
Hanja
never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters, though the stroke orders for some characters are slightly different. For example, the characters 教 and 研 are written as 敎 and 硏
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Revised Romanization Of Korean
The REVISED ROMANIZATION OF KOREAN (국어의 로마자 표기법; gugeoui romaja pyogibeop; lit. "Roman-letter notation of the national language") is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea
South Korea
proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
system. The new system eliminates diacritics in favor of digraphs and adheres more closely to Korean phonology than to a suggestive rendition of Korean phonetics for non-native speakers. The Revised Romanization limits itself to the ISO basic Latin alphabet , apart from limited, often optional use of the hyphen . It was developed by the National Academy of the Korean Language from 1995 and was released to the public on 7 July 2000 by South Korea's Ministry of Culture and Tourism in Proclamation No
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Hangul
HANGUL (/ˈhɑːnˌɡuːl/ HAHN-gool ; from Korean hangeul 한글 ) is the Korean alphabet, which has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great . It is the official writing system of South Korea
South Korea
and North Korea
North Korea
. It is a co-official writing system in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture and Changbai Korean Autonomous County in Jilin
Jilin
Province , China
China
. It is also sometimes used to write the Cia-Cia language spoken near the town of Bau-Bau , Indonesia
Indonesia
. The alphabet consists of 19 consonants and 21 vowels . Instead of being written sequentially, like the letters of the Latin alphabet , Hangul
Hangul
letters are grouped into syllabic blocks
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McCune–Reischauer
MCCUNE–REISCHAUER ROMANIZATION ( /məˈkuːn ˈraɪ.ʃaʊ.ər/ ) is one of the two most widely used Korean language
Korean language
romanization systems. A modified version of McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
was the official romanization system in South Korea
South Korea
until 2000, when it was replaced by the Revised Romanization of Korean
Romanization of Korean
system. A variant of McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
is still used as the official system in North Korea . The system was created in 1937 by George M. McCune and Edwin O. Reischauer . With a few exceptions, it attempts not to transliterate Korean hangul but to represent the phonetic pronunciation. McCune–Reischauer
McCune–Reischauer
is widely used outside Korea
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Monarchy
A MONARCHY is a form of government in which a group, generally a family representing a dynasty (aristocracy ), embodies the country's national identity and its head, the monarch , exercises the role of sovereignty. The actual power of the monarch may vary from purely symbolic (crowned republic ), to partial and restricted (constitutional monarchy ), to completely autocratic (absolute monarchy ). Traditionally the monarch's post is inherited and lasts until death or abdication. In contrast, elective monarchies require the monarch to be elected. Both types have further variations as there are widely divergent structures and traditions defining monarchy. For example, in some elected monarchies only pedigrees are taken into account for eligibility of the next ruler, whereas many hereditary monarchies impose requirements regarding the religion, age, gender, mental capacity, etc
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Proto-Korean
The Korean language is attested from the early centuries of the Common Era in Chinese characters . The Featural writing system called hangul was introduced only in the fifteenth century. The periodization of the historical stages of Korean is as follows: * Before the first century: Proto-Korean * First to tenth century: Old Korean * Tenth to sixteenth century: Middle Korean * Seventeenth century to present: Modern KoreanCONTENTS * 1 Proto-Korean * 2 Old Korean * 3 Middle Korean * 4 Modern Korean * 5 References PROTO-KOREAN Further information: Altaic languages , Buyeo languages , Koreanic languages , and Classification of the Japonic languages Controversy remains over the proposed classification of Korean as Altaic languages. Korean being a language isolate, "Proto-Korean" is not a well-defined term, referring to the language spoken in prehistoric Korea during the Bronze and Iron ages
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China
CHINA, officially the PEOPLE\'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA (PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world\'s most populous country , with a population of around 1.404 billion . Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world. Governed by the Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
, it exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces , five autonomous regions , four direct-controlled municipalities ( Beijing
Beijing
, Tianjin
Tianjin
, Shanghai
Shanghai
, and Chongqing
Chongqing
), and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong
Hong Kong
and Macau
Macau

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Jeulmun Pottery Period
The JEULMUN POTTERY PERIOD is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory broadly spanning the period of 8000–1500 BC. This period subsumes the Mesolithic
Mesolithic
and Neolithic
Neolithic
cultural stages in Korea, lasting ca. 8000–3500 BC ("Incipient" to "Early" phases) and 3500–1500 BC ("Middle" and "Late" phases), respectively. Because of the early presence of pottery, the entire period has also been subsumed under a broad label of "Korean Neolithic". The Jeulmun pottery period is named after the decorated pottery vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage consistently over the above period, especially 4000-2000 BC. Jeulmun ( Hangul
Hangul
: 즐문, Hanja
Hanja
: 櫛文) means "Comb-patterned"
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Ye-Maek Language
YE-MAEK (예맥어), also known as YEMAEK and MAEK, is an unclassified and arguably unattested language of Manchuria
Manchuria
and eastern Korea
Korea
north of Silla
Silla
in the last few centuries BCE. The Yemaek people had historical ties to later Korean kingdoms and may have been ancestral to several, such as Gojoseon
Gojoseon
; the Ye of Yemaek are reported to have been a synonym for Buyeo , and the Maek for Goguryeo
Goguryeo
. Their language may have been one of, or ancestral to, the Buyeo languages
Buyeo languages
. Evidence for the language is limited to toponyms , and its existence is questionable. Attempts at recovering Yemaek words from toponyms in the Samguk Sagi
Samguk Sagi
historical record are disputed
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Mumun Pottery Period
The MUMUN POTTERY PERIOD is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 BC This period is named after the Korean name for undecorated or plain cooking and storage vessels that form a large part of the pottery assemblage over the entire length of the period, but especially 850-550 BC. The Mumun period is known for the origins of intensive agriculture and complex societies in the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
. This period or parts of it have sometimes been labelled as the "Korean Bronze Age
Bronze Age
", after Thomsen\'s 19th century Three-age system
Three-age system
classification of human prehistory
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Later Three Kingdoms
The LATER THREE KINGDOMS OF KOREA (892–936) consisted of Silla
Silla
, Hubaekje ("Later Baekje
Baekje
") and Hugoguryeo ("Later Goguryeo
Goguryeo
", it was replaced by Goryeo
Goryeo
). The later two claimed heirs to the earlier Three Kingdoms of Korea , which had been united by Silla. This period arose out of national unrest during the reign of Queen Jinseong of Silla
Silla
, and usually refers to the era between the founding of Hubaekje by Gyeon Hwon to the time Goryeo
Goryeo
unified the peninsula
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Balhae
BALHAE (698–926), also known as BOHAI, POHAI or PARHAE, was a kingdom in present-day Manchuria
Manchuria
and northern Korean peninsula
Korean peninsula
. Balhae
Balhae
was established by former Goguryeo
Goguryeo
general Dae Jo-yeong
Dae Jo-yeong
in 698 after his defeat of the Tang China
China
at Tianmenling . Balhae's original capital was at Dongmo Mountain in modern Dunhua , Jilin Province. In 742 it was moved to the Central Capital in Helong , Jilin. It was moved to the Northern Capital in Ning\'an , Heilongjiang in 755, to the Eastern Capital in Hunchun , Jilin in 785, and back to the Northern Capital in 794
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North–South States Period
NORTH–SOUTH STATES PERIOD (698–926 CE) is the period in Korean history when Later Silla
Silla
and Balhae
Balhae
coexisted in the south and north of the peninsula, respectively. CONTENTS * 1 Later Silla
Silla
* 2 Balhae
Balhae
* 3 Language * 4 See also * 5 References LATER SILLA Main article: Later Silla
Silla
After the unification wars, the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
established territories in the former Goguryeo, and began to administer and establish communities in Baekje. Silla
Silla
attacked the Chinese in Baekje
Baekje
and northern Korea in 671. The Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
then invaded Silla
Silla
in 674 but Silla
Silla
defeated the Tang army in the north
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Gaya Confederacy
GAYA ( Hangul
Hangul
: 가야; Hanja
Hanja
: 加倻; RR : Gaya, Korean pronunciation: ) was a confederacy of territorial polities in the Nakdong River
Nakdong River
basin of southern Korea
Korea
, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan
Samhan
period. The traditional period used by historians for Gaya chronology is AD 42–532. According to archaeological evidence in the third and fourth centuries some of the city-states of Byeonhan evolved into the Gaya confederacy, which was later annexed by Silla
Silla
, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea
Korea
. The individual polities that made up the Gaya confederacy have been characterized as small city-states. The material culture remains of Gaya culture mainly consist of burials and their contents of mortuary goods that have been excavated by archaeologists
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Jinhan Confederacy
JINHAN (Korean pronunciation: ) was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century AD in the southern Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. Jinhan was one of the Samhan (or "Three Hans"), along with Byeonhan and Mahan . Apparently descending from the Jin state of southern Korea, Jinhan was absorbed by the later Silla
Silla
, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea
Three Kingdoms of Korea

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