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Gobi Desert
The Gobi Desert
Desert
(/ˈɡoʊ.bi/) is a large desert region in Asia.[1] It covers parts of northern and northwestern China, and of southern Mongolia. The desert basins of the Gobi are bounded by the Altai Mountains and the grasslands and steppes of Mongolia
Mongolia
on the north, by the Taklamakan Desert
Desert
to the west, by the Hexi Corridor
Hexi Corridor
and Tibetan Plateau
Plateau
to the southwest, and by the North China
China
Plain to the southeast
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Northwest China
Northwestern China
China
(西北, Xīběi) includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang
Xinjiang
and <
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Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
(de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore. Its pronunciation is based on the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, its vocabulary on the Mandarin dialects, and its grammar is based on written vernacular Chinese. Like other varieties of Chinese, Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
is a tonal language with topic-prominent organization and subject–verb–object word order. It has more initial consonants but fewer vowels, final consonants and tones than southern varieties
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Silk Road
The Silk
Silk
Road was an ancient network of trade routes connecting the East and West which for centuries was central to cultural interaction between them.[1][2][3] The Silk
Silk
Road refers to both the terrestrial and the maritime routes connecting Asia with the Middle East
Middle East
and southern Europe. The Silk
Silk
Road derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty
Han dynasty
(207 BCE–220 CE)
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Steppe
In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: степь, IPA: [stʲepʲ]) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes. In South Africa, they are referred to as veld. The prairie of North America
North America
(especially the shortgrass and mixed prairie) is an example of a steppe, though it is not usually called such. A steppe may be semi-desert or covered with grass or shrubs or both, depending on the season and latitude. The term is also used to denote the climate encountered in regions too dry to support a forest but not dry enough to be a desert. The soil is typically of chernozem type. Steppes are usually characterized by a semi-arid and continental climate. Extremes can be recorded in the summer of up to 45 °C (113 °F) and in winter, −55 °C (−67 °F)
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Rain Shadow
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind). The mountains block the passage of rain-producing weather systems and cast a "shadow" of dryness behind them. Wind and moist air is drawn by the prevailing winds towards the top of the mountains, where it condenses and precipitates before it crosses the top. The air, without much moisture left, advances across the mountains creating a drier side called the "rain shadow".Contents1 Description 2 Regions of notable rain shadow2.1 Asia2.1.1 Middle East2.2 South America 2.3 North America 2.4 Europe 2.5 Africa 2.6 Oceania3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The condition exists because warm moist air rises by orographic lifting to the top of a mountain range
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Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Eleventh Edition (1910–11) is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication. Some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain; and many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in.[1] However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic
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North China
North China
China
(simplified Chinese: 华北; traditional Chinese: 華北; pinyin: Huáběi; literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.[1]The Qinling Huaihe Line
Qinling Huaihe Line
separates China
China
into its Northern and Southern regionsThe heartland of North China
China
is the North China
China
Plain, or the Yellow River Plain
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Lake Bosten
Bosten Lake
Bosten Lake
(Chinese: 博斯騰湖; pinyin: Bósīténg Hú, Uyghur: باغراش كۆلى / Бағраш Көли / Baghrash Köli / Baƣrax Kɵli, Chagatai: Bostang) is a freshwater lake on the northeastern rim of the Tarim Basin, about 20 km (12 mi) east of Yanqi and 57 km (35 mi) northeast of Korla, Xinjiang, China
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Lop Nor
Lop Nur
Lop Nur
or Lop Nor (from a Mongolian name meaning "Lop Lake"[1]) is a former salt lake in China, now largely dried-up, located between the Taklamakan and Kumtag deserts in the southeastern portion of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. Administratively, the lake is in Lop Nur
Lop Nur
township (罗布泊镇 pinyin: Luóbùpō zhèn, also known as Luozhong 罗中, pinyin: Luó zhōng) of Ruoqiang County, which in its turn is part of the Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture. The lake system into which the Tarim River
Tarim River
and Shule River
Shule River
empty is the last remnant of the historical post-glacial Tarim Lake, which once covered more than 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) in the Tarim Basin. Lop Nur
Lop Nur
is hydrologically endorheic— it is landbound and there is no outlet
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Pamirs
The Pamir Mountains, or the Pamirs, are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas
Himalayas
with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush, Suleman and Hindu Raj
Hindu Raj
ranges. They are among the world’s highest mountains. The precise extent of the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
is subject to debate.[1] They lie mostly in the Gorno-Badakhshan province of Tajikistan. To the north they join the Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains along the Alay Valley
Alay Valley
of Kyrgyzstan. To the south they border the Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
mountains along Afghanistan's Wakhan
Wakhan
Corridor
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Mongolian Cyrillic Script
The Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet
(Mongolian: Монгол Кирилл үсэг, Mongol Kirill üseg or Кирилл цагаан толгой, Kirill tsagaan tolgoi) is the writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language
Mongolian language
in the modern state of Mongolia. It has a largely phonemic orthography, meaning that there is a fair degree of consistency in the representation of individual sounds. Cyrillic has not been adopted as the writing system in the Inner Mongolia
Mongolia
region of China, which continues to use the traditional Mongolian script. History[edit] Mongolian Cyrillic is the most recent of the many writing systems that have been used for Mongolian
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Xiao'erjing
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCEPaleo-Hebrew 10 c. BCESamaritan 6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic 8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari 13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c. BCEOrkhon (old Turkic) 6 c. CEOld Hungarian c. 650 CEOld UyghurMongolian 1204 CEMandaic 2 c. CEGreek 8 c. BCEEtruscan 8 c. BCELatin 7 c
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Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin (/ˈmændərɪn, -drɪn/ ( listen); simplified Chinese: 官话; traditional Chinese: 官話; pinyin: Guānhuà; literally: "speech of officials") is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China. The group includes the Beijing
Beijing
dialect, the basis of Standard Mandarin or Standard Chinese. Because most Mandarin dialects are found in the north, the group is sometimes referred to as the Northern dialects (北方话; běifānghuà). Many local Mandarin varieties are not mutually intelligible
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Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Hanyu Pinyin
Romanization
Romanization
(simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音), often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in mainland China
China
and to some extent in Taiwan. It is often used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, which is normally written using Chinese characters. The system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin
Pinyin
without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, and also in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters. The pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang,[1] based on earlier form romanizations of Chinese
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Chinese Language
Legend:   Countries identified Chinese as a primary, administrative, or native language   Countries with more than 5,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 1,000,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 500,000 Chinese speakers   Countries with more than 100,000 Chinese speakers   Major Chinese-speaking settlementsThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters
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