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Gnome Wave Cleaner
GNOME
GNOME
WAVE CLEANER (GWC) is a digital audio editor application. The graphical user interface for the editor has been produced employing GTK+
GTK+
for the GUI widgets . Its primary author is Jeff Welty. Gnome Wave Cleaner is free and open-source software subject to the terms of the GNU General Public License
GNU General Public License
version 2 or later. FEATURESGnome Wave Cleaner's primary purpose is to clean up poor quality recordings, such as those captured from old 78 rpm phonograph records. It provides tools for removing noise by spectral subtraction and for removing clicks by least squares autoregressive interpolation. It is also capable of automatically marking song boundaries, and developing TOC records for creating music Compact Discs from the cleaned audio file. As it uses libsndfile for audio I/O, it can read and write most audio file and data formats
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Autoregressive
In statistics and signal processing , an AUTOREGRESSIVE (AR) MODEL is a representation of a type of random process ; as such, it is used to describe certain time-varying processes in nature , economics , etc. The autoregressive model specifies that the output variable depends linearly on its own previous values and on a stochastic term (an imperfectly predictable term); thus the model is in the form of a stochastic difference equation . Together with the moving-average (MA) model , it is a special case and key component of the more general ARMA and ARIMA models of time series , which have a more complicated stochastic structure; it is also a special case of the vector autoregressive model (VAR), which consists of a system of more than one interlocking stochastic difference equation in more than one evolving random variable. Contrary to the moving-average model, the autoregressive model is not always stationary as it may contain a unit root
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Least Squares
The method of LEAST SQUARES is a standard approach in regression analysis to the approximate solution of overdetermined systems , i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns. "Least squares" means that the overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the residuals made in the results of every single equation. The most important application is in data fitting . The best fit in the least-squares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals (a residual being: the difference between an observed value, and the fitted value provided by a model). When the problem has substantial uncertainties in the independent variable (the x variable), then simple regression and least squares methods have problems; in such cases, the methodology required for fitting errors-in-variables models may be considered instead of that for least squares
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Spectral Density
The power spectrum S x x ( f ) {displaystyle S_{xx}(f)} of a time series x ( t ) {displaystyle x(t)} describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal. According to Fourier analysis any physical signal can be decomposed into a number of discrete frequencies, or a spectrum of frequencies over a continuous range. The statistical average of a certain signal or sort of signal (including noise ) as analyzed in terms of its frequency content, is called its spectrum . When the energy of the signal is concentrated around a finite time interval, especially if its total energy is finite, one may compute the ENERGY SPECTRAL DENSITY. More commonly used is the POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY (or simply POWER SPECTRUM), which applies to signals existing over all time, or over a time period large enough (especially in relation to the duration of a measurement) that it could as well have been over an infinite time interval
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Muse
The MUSES are the inspirational goddesses of literature , science , and the arts in Greek mythology. They were considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry , lyric songs , and myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures. They were later adopted by the Romans as a part of their pantheon . In current English usage, "muse" can refer in general to a person who inspires an artist, musician, or writer
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Optical Disc Authoring
OPTICAL DISC AUTHORING, including DVD
DVD
and Blu-ray Disc authoring is the process of assembling source material—video, audio or other data—into the proper logical volume format to then be recorded ("burned") onto an optical disc (typically a compact disc or DVD
DVD
). CONTENTS * 1 Process * 2 Sessions * 2.1 Tracks * 3 Hardware * 4 Software * 5 File
File
systems * 5.1 ISO 9660 * 5.2 Universal Disk Format * 6 HighMAT * 7 See also * 8 External links PROCESSTo burn an optical disc, one usually first creates an optical disc image with a full file system , of a type designed for the optical disc, in temporary storage such as a file in another file system on a disk drive. Then, one copies the image to the disc
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Proprietary Software
PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE is computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code , but sometimes patent rights. CONTENTS * 1 Software becoming proprietary * 2 Legal basis * 2.1 Limitations * 3 Exclusive rights * 3.1 Use of the software * 3.2 Inspection and modification of source code * 3.3 Redistribution * 4 Interoperability with software and hardware * 4.1 Proprietary file formats and protocols * 4.2 Proprietary APIs * 4.3 Vendor lock-in * 4.4 Software limited to certain hardware configurations * 5 Abandonment by owners * 6 Formerly open-source software * 7 Pricing and economics * 8 Examples * 9 See also * 10 References SOFTWARE BECOMING PROPRIETARYUntil the late 1960s computers—large and expensive mainframe computers , machines in specially air-conditioned computer rooms—were leased to customers rather than sold
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Software Developer
A SOFTWARE DEVELOPER is a person concerned with facets of the software development process, including the research, design, programming , and testing of computer software . Other job titles which are often used with similar meanings are programmer , software analyst , and software engineer . According to developer Eric Sink, the differences between system design, software development , and programming are more apparent. Already in the current market place there can be found a segregation between programmers and developers, being that one who implements is not the same as the one who designs the class structure or hierarchy. Even more so that developers become software architects or systems architects , those who design the multi-leveled architecture or component interactions of a large software system. In a large company, there may be employees whose sole responsibility consists of only one of the phases above
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Ecasound
ECASOUND is a hard-disk recording and audio processing tool for Unix-like computer operating systems including Linux
Linux
, Mac OS X , and FreeBSD . Ecasound allows flexible interconnection of audio inputs, files, outputs, and effects algorithms, realtime-controllable by builtin oscillators, MIDI
MIDI
, or interprocess communication via GUI front-end. Ecasound supports JACK and LADSPA effects plug-ins. The team leader is Kai Vehmanen, with dozens of contributors. Kai joined the project in 1995, when it was called wavstat, a simple DSP utility running under OS/2. Available under the GNU General Public License , Ecasound is free software . CONTENTS * 1 User Interface * 2 See also * 3 External links * 4 References USER INTERFACE Ecasound is a command-line tool: it does not include a native graphical interface
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Diamond Cut Audio Restoration Tools
DIAMOND CUT AUDIO RESTORATION TOOLS (also known as DC-ART) is a set of digital audio editor tools from Diamond Cut Productions used for audio restoration , record restoration , sound restoration of gramophone records and other audio containing media
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SoX
SOUND EXCHANGE (SOX) is a cross-platform audio editing software . It has a command-line interface , and is written in standard C . It is free software , licensed under the GNU General Public License
GNU General Public License
version 2, with libsox licensed under GNU Lesser General Public License version 2, and distributed by Chris Bagwell through SourceForge.net . CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Features * 3 Examples * 4 See also * 5 External links HISTORY SoX
SoX
was created in July 1991 by Lance Norskog and posted to the Usenet
Usenet
group alt.sources as Aural eXchange: Sound sample translator. With the second release (in November the same year) it was renamed Sound Exchange
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Free And Open-source Software
FREE AND OPEN-SOURCE SOFTWARE (FOSS) is computer software that can be classified as both free software and open-source software . That is, anyone is freely licensed to use, copy, study, and change the software in any way, and the source code is openly shared so that people are encouraged to voluntarily improve the design of the software. This is in contrast to proprietary software , where the software is under restrictive copyright and the source code is usually hidden from the users. The benefits of using FOSS can include decreasing software costs, increasing security and stability (especially in regard to malware ), protecting privacy , and giving users more control over their own hardware. Free, open-source operating systems such as Linux
Linux
and descendents of BSD
BSD
are widely utilized today, powering millions of servers , desktops , smartphones (e.g. Android ), and other devices
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Colors Of Noise
In audio engineering , electronics , physics , and many other fields, the COLOR OF NOISE refers to the power spectrum of a noise signal (a signal produced by a stochastic process ). Different colors of noise have significantly different properties: for example, as audio signals they will sound different to human ears , and as images they will have a visibly different texture . Therefore, each application typically requires noise of a specific color. This sense of 'color' for noise signals is similar to the concept of timbre in music (which is also called "tone color"); however the latter is almost always used for sound , and may consider very detailed features of the spectrum . The practice of naming kinds of noise after colors started with white noise , a signal whose spectrum has equal power within any equal interval of frequencies. That name was given by analogy with white light, which was (incorrectly) assumed to have such a flat power spectrum over the visible range
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GUI Widget
A control element (sometimes called a CONTROL or WIDGET) in a graphical user interface is an element of interaction , such as a button or a scroll bar . Controls are software components that a computer user interacts with through direct manipulation to read or edit information about an application. User interface libraries such as Windows Presentation Foundation , GTK+ , and Cocoa , contain a collection of controls and the logic to render these. Each widget facilitates a specific type of user-computer interaction, and appears as a visible part of the application's GUI as defined by the theme and rendered by the rendering engine. The theme makes all widgets adhere to a unified aesthetic design and creates a sense of overall cohesion. Some widgets support interaction with the user, for example labels, buttons , and check boxes . Others act as containers that group the widgets added to them, for example windows , panels , and tabs
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C (programming Language)
C (/ˈsiː/ , as in the letter c ) is a general-purpose , imperative computer programming language , supporting structured programming , lexical variable scope and recursion , while a static type system prevents many unintended operations. By design, C provides constructs that map efficiently to typical machine instructions , and therefore it has found lasting use in applications that had formerly been coded in assembly language , including operating systems , as well as various application software for computers ranging from supercomputers to embedded systems . C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie between 1969 and 1973 at Bell Labs
Bell Labs
, and used to re-implement the Unix
Unix
operating system. It has since become one of the most widely used programming languages of all time, with C compilers from various vendors available for the majority of existing computer architectures and operating systems
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Linux
LINUX (/ˈlɪnəks/ ( listen ) LIN-əks ) is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel . Typically, Linux
Linux
is packaged in a form known as a Linux
Linux
distribution (or distro for short) for both desktop and server use. The defining component of a Linux distribution
Linux distribution
is the Linux kernel , an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds . Linux
Linux
was originally developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system. Because of the dominance of the Linux
Linux
kernel-based Android OS on smartphones , Linux
Linux
has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems
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