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Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
Gnaeus Julius Agricola
(/əˈɡrɪkələ/; 13 June 40 – 23 August 93) was a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain. Written by his son-in-law Tacitus, the De vita et moribus Iulii Agricolae is the primary source for most of what is known about him,[1] along with detailed archaeological evidence from northern Britain.[2] Agricola began his military career in Britain, serving under governor Gaius Suetonius Paulinus. His subsequent career saw him serve in a variety of positions; he was appointed quaestor in Asia province in 64, then Plebeian Tribune
Plebeian Tribune
in 66, and praetor in 68. He supported Vespasian
Vespasian
during the Year of the Four Emperors
Year of the Four Emperors
(69), and was given a military command in Britain when the latter became emperor
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Roman Baths (Bath)
The Roman Baths complex is a site of historical interest in the English city of Bath. The house is a well-preserved Roman site for public bathing. The Roman Baths themselves are below the modern street level. There are four main features: the Sacred Spring, the Roman Temple, the Roman Bath House and the museum, holding finds from Roman Bath
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Consul
Consul
Consul
(abbrev. cos.; Latin
Latin
plural consules) was the title of one of the chief magistrates of the Roman Republic, and subsequently a somewhat significant title under the Roman Empire. The title was also used in other city states and also revived in modern states, notably in the First French Republic. The relating adjective is consular, from the consularis.Contents1 Modern use of the term 2 Medieval city states 3 French Revolution3.1 French Republic 3.2 Roman Republic 3.3 Bolognese Republic4 Later modern republics4.1 Paraguay5 Other uses in antiquity5.1 Other city states 5.2 Private sphere 5.3 Revolutionary Greece6 See also 7 Sources and referencesModern use of the term[edit] Main article: Consul
Consul
(representative) In modern terminology, a consul is a type of diplomat
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Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
( Latin
Latin
for " Gaul
Gaul
of Narbonne", from its chief settlement)[n 1] was a Roman province
Roman province
located in what is now Languedoc and Provence, in southern France. It was also known as Provincia Nostra ("Our Province"), from its having been the first Roman province
Roman province
north of the Alps, and as Gallia Transalpina ("Transalpine Gaul"), distinguishing it from Cisalpine Gaul
Cisalpine Gaul
in northern Italy. It became a Roman province
Roman province
in the late 2nd century BC. Its boundaries were roughly defined by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the south and the Cévennes
Cévennes
and Alps
Alps
to the north and west
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Northern England
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area. It extends from the Scottish border in the north to near the River Trent
River Trent
in the south, although precise definitions of its southern extent vary. Northern England
England
approximately comprises three statistical regions: the North East, North West and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber. These have a combined population of around 14.9 million as of the 2011 Census and an area of 37,331 km2 (14,414 sq mi)
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Colonia (Roman)
A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. Eventually, however, the term came to denote the highest status of Roman city. It is also the origin of the modern term colony.Contents1 Characteristics 2 History 3 Examples 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksCharacteristics[edit] The Roman Republic, having no standing army, used to plant bodies of their own citizens in conquered towns as a kind of garrison
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Roman Senate
The Roman Senate
Senate
(Latin: Senatus Romanus; Italian: Senato Romano) was a political institution in ancient Rome. It was one of the most enduring institutions in Roman history, being established in the first days of the city (traditionally founded in 753 BC). It survived the overthrow of the kings in 509 BC, the fall of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
in the 1st century BC, the division of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 395 AD, the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 476 AD, and the barbarian rule of Rome
Rome
in the 5th, 6th, and 7th centuries. During the days of the kingdom, it was little more than an advisory council to the king
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Gauls
The Gauls
Gauls
were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul
Gaul
in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD). Their Gaulish language
Gaulish language
forms the main branch of the Continental Celtic languages. The Gauls
Gauls
emerged around the 5th century BC as the bearers of the La Tène culture north of the Alps
Alps
(spread across the lands between the Seine, Middle Rhine
Middle Rhine
and upper Elbe)
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Roman Emperor
The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC). The emperors used a variety of different titles throughout history. Often when a given Roman is described as becoming "emperor" in English, it reflects his taking of the title Augustus
Augustus
or Caesar. Another title often used was imperator, originally a military honorific. Early Emperors also used the title princeps (first citizen). Emperors frequently amassed republican titles, notably Princeps senatus, Consul
Consul
and Pontifex Maximus. The legitimacy of an emperor's rule depended on his control of the army and recognition by the Senate; an emperor would normally be proclaimed by his troops, or invested with imperial titles by the Senate, or both
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Patrician (ancient Rome)
The patricians (from Latin: patricius) were originally a group of ruling class families in ancient Rome. The distinction was highly significant in the early Republic—but its relevance waned after the Conflict of the Orders
Conflict of the Orders
(494 BC to 287 BC), and by the time of the late Republic and Empire, membership in the patriciate was of only nominal significance. After the Western Empire fell, it remained a high honorary title in the Byzantine Empire. Medieval patrician classes were once again formally defined groups of leading burgess families in many medieval Italian republics, such as Venice and Genoa, and subsequently "patrician" became a vague term used for aristocrats and the higher bourgeoisie in many countries.Contents1 Origin 2 Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and Empire2.1 Status 2.2 Patricians vs
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Marcus Junius Silanus (consul AD 15)
Marcus Junius C. f. M. n. Silanus (c.26 BC – 37)[1] was an Ancient Roman senator who became suffect consul in 15.[2] His daughter Junia Claudilla was the first wife of Emperor Caligula.[2] His brother was a senator named Decimus Junius Silanus who was banished for having an affair with Vipsania Julia during the reign of Augustus.[2] According to Ronald Syme, he had another brother, Gaius Junius Silanus, the consul of AD 10
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Marseille
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once. Marseille
Marseille
(/mɑːrˈseɪ/; French: [maʁsɛj] ( listen), locally [mɑχˈsɛjə]; Provençal: Marselha [maʀˈsejɔ, -ˈsijɔ]), also known in British English
British English
as Marseilles, is the second-largest city of France
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Tribune
Tribune
Tribune
(Latin: Tribunus) was the title of various elected officials in Ancient Rome. The two most important were the tribunes of the plebs and the military tribunes. For most of Roman history, a college of ten tribunes of the plebs acted as a check on the authority of the senate and the annual magistrates, holding the power of ius intercessionis to intervene on behalf of the plebeians, and veto unfavourable legislation. There were also military tribunes, who commanded portions of the Roman army, subordinate to the higher magistrates, such as the consuls and praetors, promagistrates, and their legates. Various officers within the Roman army
Roman army
were also known as tribunes
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Titianus
Lucius Salvius Otho
Otho
Titianus was the elder brother of the Roman Emperor Otho
Otho
(reigned 69). As a Roman senator, he was consul in the year 52 as the colleague of Faustus Cornelius Sulla Felix,[1] and appointed consul as his brother's colleague for the period from Galba's murder to the end of February.[2] Titianus was present at the First Battle of Bedriacum. Titianus was married to Cocceia, the sister of the future Roman Emperor Marcus Cocceius Nerva
Nerva
(reigned 96–98), with whom he had a son, Lucius Salvius Otho
Otho
Cocceianus. Cocceianus rose to become consul around 80, but was later executed under orders of Emperor Domitian, for having observed his uncle Otho's birthday.[3] References[edit]^ Paul Gallivan, "The Fasti for the Reign of Claudius", Classical Quarterly, 28 (1978), pp
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