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Glycosylamine
Glycosylamines are a class of biochemical compounds consisting of a glycosyl group attached to an amino group, -NR2. They are also known as N-glycosides,[1] as they are a type of glycoside. Glycosyl
Glycosyl
groups can be derived from carbohydrates. The glycosyl group and amino group are connected with a β-N-glycosidic bond, forming a cyclic hemiaminal ether bond (α-aminoether). Examples include nucleosides such as adenosine.The nucleoside adenosineReferences[edit]^ Moss, G. P.; Smith, P. A. S.; Tavernier, D. (1995), "Glossary of class names of organic compounds and reactivity intermediates based on structure (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)", Pure Appl. Chem., 67 (8–9): 1307–75 at 1312, 1348, doi:10.1351/pac199567081307 .This biochemistry article is a stub
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Amine
In organic chemistry, amines (/əˈmiːn, ˈæmiːn/,[1][2] also UK: /ˈeɪmiːn/)[3] are compounds and functional groups that contain a basic nitrogen atom with a lone pair. Amines are formally derivatives of ammonia, wherein one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by a substituent such as an alkyl or aryl group[4] (these may respectively be called alkylamines and arylamines; amines in which both types of substituent are attached to one nitrogen atom may be called alkylarylamines). Important amines include amino acids, biogenic amines, trimethylamine, and aniline; see Category:Amines for a list of amines
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Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
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Adenosine
(adenosine may be safe to the fetus in pregnant women)Routes of administration IntravenousATC codeC01EB10 (WHO)Legal statusLegal statusIn general: ℞ (Prescription only)Pharmacokinetic dataBioavailability Rapidly cleared from circulation via cellular uptakeProtein binding NoMetabolism Rapidly converted to inosine and adenosine monophosphateBiological half-life cleared plasma <30 seconds – half-life <10 secondsExcretion can leave cell intact or can be degraded to hypoxanthine, xanthine, and ultimately uric acidIdentifiersIUPAC name(2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolane-3,4-diolCAS Number58-61-7 YPubChem CID60961IUPHAR/BPS2844DrugBankDB00640 YChemSpider54923 YUNIIK72T3FS567KEGGC00212 YChEBICHEBI:16335 Y


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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.[1] By controlling information flow through biochemical signaling and the flow of chemical energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give rise to the complexity of life
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992
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Glycosyl
A glycosyl group is a univalent free radical or substituent structure obtained by removing the hemiacetal hydroxyl group from the cyclic form of a monosaccharide and, by extension, of a lower oligosaccharide. Glycosyl
Glycosyl
also reacts with inorganic acids, such as phosphoric acid, forming an ester such as glucose 1-phosphate.[1]Contents1 Examples 2 Alternative substituent groups 3 See also 4 ReferencesExamples[edit] In cellulose, glycosyl groups link together 1,4-beta-D-glucosyl units to form chains of (1,4-beta-D-glucosyl)n. Other examples include ribityl in 6,7-Dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine, and glycosylamines. Alternative substituent groups[edit]The β-D-glucopyranose-3-O-yl group which is obtained by the removal of a hydrogen from the C3 hydroxyl of β-D-glucopyranoseInstead of the hemiacetal hydroxyl group, a hydrogen atom can be removed to form a substituent, for example the hydrogen from the C3 hydroxyl of a glucose molecule
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Glycosidic Bond
In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.Formation of ethyl glucoside: Glucose
Glucose
and ethanol combine to form ethyl glucoside and water. The reaction often favors formation of the α glycosidic bond as shown due to the anomeric effect.A glycosidic bond is formed between the hemiacetal or hemiketal group of a saccharide (or a molecule derived from a saccharide) and the hydroxyl group of some compound such as an alcohol
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Hemiaminal Ether
An aminal or aminoacetal is a functional group or type of organic compound that has two amine groups attached to the same carbon atom: -C(NR2)(NR2)-. (As is customary in organic chemistry, R can represent hydrogen or an alkyl group).[1] The aminal and the hemiaminal groups are analogous to hemiacetals and acetals with nitrogen replaced by oxygen. Aminals are encountered in, for instance, the Fischer indole synthesis. Cyclic aminals are well known, being typical derived by the condensation of a diamine and an aldehyde.[2] Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ethers[edit] Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ether derived from an aldehyde Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ether derived from a ketone Hemiaminal
Hemiaminal
ethers are also sometimes called aminals although it is discouraged by the IUPAC. They have the following structure: R‴-C(NR'2)(OR")-R⁗
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Nucleoside
Nucleosides are glycosylamines that can be thought of as nucleotides without a phosphate group. A nucleoside consists simply of a nucleobase (also termed a nitrogenous base) and a five-carbon sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose), whereas a nucleotide is composed of a nucleobase, a five-carbon sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. In a nucleoside, the base is bound to either ribose or deoxyribose via a beta-glycosidic linkage. Examples of nucleosides include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine and inosine. Biological function[edit] While a nucleoside is a nucleobase linked to a sugar, a nucleotide is composed of a nucleoside and one or more phosphate groups
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Glycoside
In chemistry, a glycoside /ˈɡlaɪkəsaɪd/ is a molecule in which a sugar is bound to another functional group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides play numerous important roles in living organisms. Many plants store chemicals in the form of inactive glycosides. These can be activated by enzyme hydrolysis,[1] which causes the sugar part to be broken off, making the chemical available for use. Many such plant glycosides are used as medications. Several species of Heliconius butterfly are capable of incorporating these plant compounds as a form of chemical defense against predators.[2] In animals and humans, poisons are often bound to sugar molecules as part of their elimination from the body. In formal terms, a glycoside is any molecule in which a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to another group via a glycosidic bond. Glycosides can be linked by an O- (an O-glycoside), N- (a glycosylamine), S-(a thioglycoside), or C- (a C-glycoside) glycosidic bond
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Glycosylamine
Glycosylamines are a class of biochemical compounds consisting of a glycosyl group attached to an amino group, -NR2. They are also known as N-glycosides,[1] as they are a type of glycoside. Glycosyl
Glycosyl
groups can be derived from carbohydrates. The glycosyl group and amino group are connected with a β-N-glycosidic bond, forming a cyclic hemiaminal ether bond (α-aminoether). Examples include nucleosides such as adenosine.The nucleoside adenosineReferences[edit]^ Moss, G. P.; Smith, P. A. S.; Tavernier, D. (1995), "Glossary of class names of organic compounds and reactivity intermediates based on structure (IUPAC Recommendations 1995)", Pure Appl. Chem., 67 (8–9): 1307–75 at 1312, 1348, doi:10.1351/pac199567081307 .This biochemistry article is a stub
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