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Glottolog
Glottolog
Glottolog
is a bibliographic database of the world's lesser-known languages, developed and maintained first at the former Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and since 2015 at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany. Glottolog
Glottolog
provides a catalogue of the world's languages and language families, and a bibliography on the world's less-spoken languages
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Max Planck Institute For The Science Of Human History
An institute is an organisational body created for a certain purpose. Often they are research organisations (research institutions) created to do research on specific topics. An institute can also be a professional body, or one involved in adult education, see Mechanics' Institutes. In some countries institutes can be part of a university or other institutions of higher education, either as a group of departments or an autonomous educational institution without a traditional university status such as a "university Institute". (See Institute
Institute
of Technology) The word "institute" comes from the Latin
Latin
word institutum meaning "facility" or "habit"; from instituere meaning "build", "create", "raise" or "educate". In some countries, such as South Korea
South Korea
and Japan, private schools are sometimes referred to as institutes, rather than schools
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Nuclear Trans New Guinea Languages
Language
Language
is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system. The scientific study of language is called linguistics. Questions concerning the philosophy of language, such as whether words can represent experience, have been debated at least since Gorgias
Gorgias
and Plato
Plato
in ancient Greece. Thinkers such as Rousseau
Rousseau
have argued that language originated from emotions while others like Kant have held that it originated from rational and logical thought. 20th-century philosophers such as Wittgenstein argued that philosophy is really the study of language. Major figures in linguistics include Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky. Estimates of the number of human languages in the world vary between 5,000 and 7,000
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Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig
(/ˈlaɪpsɪɡ/; German: [ˈlaɪptsɪç]) is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 582,277 inhabitants[3] (1.1 million[4] residents in the larger urban zone)[1] it is Germany's tenth most populous city.[5][6] Leipzig
Leipzig
is located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) southwest of Berlin
Berlin
at the confluence of the White Elster, Pleisse, and Parthe
Parthe
rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig
Leipzig
has been a trade city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire.[7] The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important medieval trade routes
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Jena
Jena
Jena
(German pronunciation: [ˈjeːna] ( listen)) is a German university city and the second largest city in Thuringia. Together with the nearby cities of Erfurt
Erfurt
and Weimar, it forms the central metropolitan area of Thuringia
Thuringia
with approximately 500,000 inhabitants, while the city itself has a population of about 110,000. Jena
Jena
is a centre of education and research; the Friedrich Schiller University was founded in 1558 and has 21,000 students today and the Ernst-Abbe- Fachhochschule Jena
Jena
counts another 5,000 students. Furthermore, there are many institutes of the leading German research societies. Jena
Jena
was first mentioned in 1182 and stayed a small town until the 19th century, when industry developed
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Bibliographic Database
A bibliographic database is a database of bibliographic records, an organized digital collection of references to published literature, including journal and newspaper articles, conference proceedings, reports, government and legal publications, patents, books, etc
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Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License
A Creative Commons
Creative Commons
(CC) license is one of several public copyright licenses that enable the free distribution of an otherwise copyrighted work. A CC license is used when an author wants to give people the right to share, use, and build upon a work that they have created. CC provides an author flexibility (for example, they might choose to allow only non-commercial uses of their own work) and protects the people who use or redistribute an author's work from concerns of copyright infringement as long as they abide by the conditions that are specified in the license by which the author distributes the work.[1][2][3][4][5] There are several types of CC licenses. The licenses differ by several combinations that condition the terms of distribution. They were initially released on December 16, 2002 by Creative Commons, a U.S. non-profit corporation founded in 2001
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Oceania
Oceania
Oceania
(UK: /ˌoʊʃiˈɑːniə, ˌoʊsi-/[3] or US: /ˌoʊʃiːˈæniə/[4]) is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia
Polynesia
and Australasia.[5] Spanning the eastern and western hemispheres, Oceania
Oceania
covers an area of 8,525,989 square kilometres (3,291,903 sq mi) and has a population of 40 million
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Max Planck Institute For Evolutionary Anthropology
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology
Evolutionary Anthropology
(German: Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie, shortened to MPI EVA) is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997. It is part of the Max Planck Society
Max Planck Society
network. The institute comprises five departments (Developmental and Comparative Psychology, Evolutionary Genetics, Human Evolution, Primatology
Primatology
and Human Behavior, Ecology and Culture) and several Junior Scientist Groups, and currently employs about three hundred and thirty people
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Sino-Tibetan Languages
Some 40 well-established subgroups, of which those with the most speakers areSinitic Tibetic Lolo-Burmese Bodish Karen Bodo–Koch Tamangic Bai Meitei Kachin–Luic ISO 639-2 / 5 sitLinguasphere 79- (phylozone)Glottolog sino1245Major branches of Sino-Tibetan:  Sinitic   Lolo-Burmese   Bodish  Karen   othersThe Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and South Asia. The family is second only to Indo-European in terms of the number of native speakers
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Lower Sepik-Ramu Languages
The Sepik–Ramu languages are a hypothetical language family of New Guinea linking the Sepik, Ramu, Nor–Pondo (Lower Sepik), Leonhard Schultze (Walio–Papi) and Yuat families, together with the Taiap language isolate, and proposed by Donald Laycock in 1973. Sepik–Ramu would consist of a hundred languages of the Sepik and Ramu river basins of northern Papua New Guinea, but spoken by only 200 000 people in all. The languages tend to have simple phonologies, with few consonants or vowels and usually no tones. The best known Sepik–Ramu language is Iatmül. The most populous are Iatmül's fellow Ndu languages Abelam and Boiken, with about 35 000 speakers apiece. Malcolm Ross and William A. Foley separately re-evaluated the Sepik–Ramu hypothesis in 2005. They both found no evidence that it forms a valid family
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Mayan Languages
The Mayan languages[notes 1] form a language family spoken in Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
and northern Central America. Mayan languages
Mayan languages
are spoken by at least 6 million Maya peoples, primarily in Guatemala, Mexico, Belize
Belize
and Honduras
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Salishan Languages
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest
Pacific Northwest
in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho
Idaho
and Montana).[2] They are characterised by agglutinativity and syllabic consonants. For instance the Nuxalk
Nuxalk
word clhp’xwlhtlhplhhskwts’ (IPA: [xɬpʼχʷɬtʰɬpʰɬːskʷʰt͡sʼ]), meaning "he had had [in his possession] a bunchberry plant," has thirteen obstruent consonants in a row with no phonetic or phonemic vowels
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Dravidian Languages
The Dravidian languages
Dravidian languages
are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Bhutan,[2] and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia
Indonesia
and Singapore. The Dravidian languages with the most speakers are Telugu, Tamil, Kannada
Kannada
and Malayalam
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Quechuan Languages
Quechua (/ˈkɛtʃuə/, in AmE also /ˈkɛtʃwɑː/)[2], known as Runasimi ("people's language") in the Quechuan language, is an indigenous language family, with variations spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Andes
Andes
and highlands of South America.[3] Derived from a common ancestral language, it is the most widely spoken language family of indigenous peoples of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8–10 million speakers.[4] Approximately 25% (7.7 million) of Peruvians speak some variation of Quechua.[5][6] It is perhaps most widely known for being the main language of the Inca Empire. The colonisers initially encouraged its use, but from the middle of their reign they suppressed it
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Uralic Languages
The Uralic languages
Uralic languages
(/jʊəˈrælɪk/; sometimes called Uralian languages /jʊəˈreɪliən/) form a language family of 38[2] languages spoken by approximately 25 million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia. The Uralic languages
Uralic languages
with the most native speakers are Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, which are the official languages of Hungary, Finland, and Estonia, respectively, and of the European Union
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