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Giroflé-Girofla
GIROFLé-GIROFLA is an opéra bouffe in three acts of 1874 with music by Charles Lecocq
Charles Lecocq
. The French libretto was by Albert Vanloo and Eugène Leterrier . CONTENTS * 1 Performance history * 2 Roles * 3 Synopsis * 3.1 Act 1 * 3.2 Act 2 * 3.3 Act 3 * 4 Influences * 5 References PERFORMANCE HISTORYThe opera was first presented at the Théâtre des Fantaisies Parisiennes, Brussels, on 21 March 1874. It opened at the Théâtre de la Renaissance , Paris, on 11 November 1874 with Jeanne Granier
Jeanne Granier
in the title role and Jolly returning to his creator's role from Brussels. The first production at the Renaissance ran for over 200 performances up to the following October. The Brussels company took Giroflé-Girofla to London where it had its first performance on 6 June 1874; an English version was premiered in London on 3 October 1874
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Cadiz
CáDIZ (/kəˈdɪz/ , Spanish: ; see other pronunciations below ) is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the province of Cádiz , one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia
Andalusia
. Cádiz, the oldest continuously inhabited city in Spain
Spain
and one of the oldest in western Europe, was founded by the Phoenicians
Phoenicians
. Cádiz is sometimes counted as the most ancient city still standing in Western Europe. and has been a principal home port of the Spanish Navy since the accession of the Spanish Bourbons in the 18th century. The city is a member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network . It is also the site of the University of Cádiz
University of Cádiz

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Blanche Deschamps-Jéhin
BLANCHE DESCHAMPS-JéHIN (also Marie Blanche Deschamps-Jehin) (18 September 1857, Lyons - June 1923, Paris
Paris
) was a French operatic contralto who had a prolific career in France
France
from 1879-1905. She possessed a rich-toned and flexible voice that had a wide vocal range . She sang in numerous world premieres throughout her career, most notably originating the title role in Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
’s Hérodiade in 1881. BIOGRAPHYDeschamps-Jehin studied singing in Lyons and Paris
Paris
before making her professional opera début in 1879 in the title role of Ambroise Thomas 's Mignon at La Monnaie in Brussels
Brussels

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Tenor
TENOR is a type of classical male singing voice whose vocal range is between the countertenor and baritone voice types . The tenor's vocal range (in choral music) lies between C3 , the C one octave below middle C , and A4, the A above middle C. In solo work, this range extends up to C5, or "tenor high C". The low extreme for tenors is roughly A♭2 (two A♭s below middle C). At the highest extreme, some tenors can sing up to two Fs above middle C (F5). The tenor voice type is generally divided into the leggero tenor, lyric tenor, spinto tenor, dramatic tenor, heldentenor, and tenor buffo or spieltenor
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Mezzo-soprano
A MEZZO-SOPRANO or MEZZO (English: /ˈmɛtsoʊ/ , /ˈmɛzoʊ/ ; Italian: meaning "half soprano") is a type of classical female singing voice whose vocal range lies between the soprano and the contralto voice types . The mezzo-soprano's vocal range usually extends from the A below middle C to the A two octaves above (i.e. A3–A5 in scientific pitch notation , where middle C = C4). In the lower and upper extremes, some mezzo-sopranos may extend down to the F below middle C (F3) and as high as "high C" (C6). The mezzo-soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura, lyric, and dramatic mezzo-soprano
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Granada
GRANADA (/ɡrəˈnɑːdə/ , Spanish: , locally ) is the capital city of the province of Granada
Granada
, in the autonomous community of Andalusia , Spain
Spain
. Granada
Granada
is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada mountains, at the confluence of four rivers, the Beiro , the Darro , the Genil and the Monachil . It sits at an average elevation of 738 m (2,421 ft) above sea level , yet is only one hour by car from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast, the Costa Tropical . Nearby is the Sierra Nevada Ski Station , where the FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1996 were held. In the 2005 national census , the population of the city of Granada proper was 236,982, and the population of the entire urban area was estimated to be 472,638, ranking as the 13th-largest urban area of Spain
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Robert Louis Stevenson
ROBERT LOUIS BALFOUR STEVENSON (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, and travel writer . His most famous works are Treasure Island , Kidnapped , Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde , and A Child\'s Garden of Verses . A literary celebrity during his lifetime, Stevenson now ranks as the 26th most translated author in the world. His works have been admired by many other writers, including Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
, Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
, Marcel Proust , Arthur Conan Doyle , Henry James , Cesare Pavese , Emilio Salgari , Ernest Hemingway , Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
, Jack London , Vladimir Nabokov
Vladimir Nabokov
, J. M. Barrie
J. M. Barrie
, and G. K. Chesterton
G. K

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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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Richard Traubner
RICHARD TRAUBNER (November 24, 1946 – February 25, 2013) was an American journalist, author, operetta scholar and historian, and lecturer on theatre and (mostly musical) film. His best-known book, Operetta: A Theatrical History, was first published in 1983. According to Opera News
Opera News
, "Traubner was universally regarded as the foremost expert on operetta in the U.S." He reviewed numerous opera and theatre productions and wrote widely on opera, musical theatre, classical music and film. He also wrote reviews, liner and program notes and participated in theatre productions as translator, director and designer. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Works * 3 Notes * 4 External links BIOGRAPHYTraubner was the son of Muriel and Edward Traubner. He attended Boston University
Boston University
, where he was president of the B. U. Savoyards. He received his Ph.D
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Les Annales Du Théâtre Et De La Musique
LES ANNALES DU THéâTRE ET DE LA MUSIQUE ("The Annals of Theatre and Music") was an annual French periodical which covered French dramatic and lyric theatre for 42 years, from 1875 to 1916. The volumes also covered concert series and necrology. It was co-edited by Édouard Noël (1848–1926) and Edmond Stoullig (1845–1918) and was published in Paris by Charpentier from 1876 to 1895 and Berger-Levrault in 1896. Beginning in 1897 it was published annually by Paul Ollendorff (with Stoullig as the sole editor) up to 1914 with the penultimate volume published in 1916 (covering the years 1914–1915) and the final volume in 1918 (covering the year 1916). A total of 41 volumes were published
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Travels With A Donkey In The Cévennes
TRAVELS WITH A DONKEY IN THE CéVENNES (1879) is one of Robert Louis Stevenson 's earliest published works and is considered a pioneering classic of outdoor literature . CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Stevenson\'s itinerary * 3 Stevenson Trail * 4 In the arts * 5 Notes * 6 External links BACKGROUNDStevenson was in his late 20s and still dependent on his parents for support. His journey was designed to provide material for publication while allowing him to distance himself from a love affair with an American woman of which his friends and families did not approve and who had returned to her husband in California. Travels recounts Stevenson's 12-day, 200-kilometre (120 mi) solo hiking journey through the sparsely populated and impoverished areas of the Cévennes
Cévennes
mountains in south-central France in 1878. The terrain, with its barren rocky heather-filled hillsides, he often compared to parts of Scotland
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Charles Lecocq
ALEXANDRE CHARLES LECOCQ (3 June 1832 – 24 October 1918) was a French musical composer. Lecocq was born in Paris, where he was admitted into the Conservatoire in 1849, being already an accomplished pianist. He studied under François Bazin , François Benoist , and Fromental Halévy , winning the first prize for harmony in 1850, and the second prize for fugue in 1852. He first gained notice by sharing with Georges Bizet
Georges Bizet
the first prize for an operetta in a competition instituted by Jacques Offenbach
Jacques Offenbach
. His opéra comique , Le Docteur Miracle, was performed at the Théâtre des Bouffes Parisiens in 1857. After that he wrote constantly for theatres, but produced nothing especially successful until Fleur-de-thé (1868), which ran for more than a hundred nights. Les cent vierges (1872) was also favorably received
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Soprano
A SOPRANO is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types . The soprano's vocal range (using scientific pitch notation ) is from approximately middle C (C4) = 261 Hz to "high A" (A5) =880 Hz in choral music , or to "soprano C" (C6, two octaves above middle C) =1046 Hz or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody . The soprano voice type is generally divided into the coloratura , soubrette , lyric , spinto , and dramatic soprano. The lyric soprano is the most common female singing voice
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List Of Operas And Operettas By Lecocq
OPERA (Italian: ; English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere ) is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text (libretto ) and musical score , usually in a theatrical setting . In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing: recitative , a speech-inflected style and arias , a more melodic style, in which notes are sung in a sustained fashion. Opera incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre , such as acting , scenery , and costumes and sometimes includes dance . The performance is typically given in an opera house , accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble , which since the early 19th century has been led by a conductor . Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition
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French Language
FRENCH (le français ( listen ) or la langue française ) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance , the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul
Gaul
, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium
Belgium
, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Opéra Bouffe
OPéRA BOUFFE (French pronunciation: ​ , plural: opéras bouffes) is a genre of late 19th-century French operetta, closely associated with Jacques Offenbach
Jacques Offenbach
, who produced many of them at the Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens that gave its name to the form. Opéras bouffes are known for elements of comedy, satire, parody and farce. The most famous examples are La belle Hélène , Barbe-bleue (Bluebeard), La Vie parisienne , La Périchole and La Grande-Duchesse de Gérolstein . SOURCES * Bartlet, M Elizabeth C: "Opéra bouffe" Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Opera (London, 1992)
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