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Girih
Girih
Girih
(Persian: گره‎, "knot") is a decorative Islamic geometric artform used in architecture and handicraft objects, consisting of angled lines that form an interlaced strapwork pattern. Girih
Girih
decoration is believed to have been inspired by Syrian Roman knotwork patterns from the 2nd century AD. The earliest girih dates from around 1000 AD, and the artform flourished until the 15th century. Girih
Girih
patterns can be created in a variety of ways, including the traditional compass and straightedge; the construction of a grid of polygons; and the use of a set of girih tiles with lines drawn on them: the lines form the pattern. Patterns may be elaborated by the use of two levels of design, as at the 1453 Darb-e Imam
Darb-e Imam
shrine
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Shah-i-Zinda
Shah-i-Zinda
Shah-i-Zinda
(Uzbek: Shohizinda; Persian: شاه زنده‎, meaning "The Living King") is a necropolis in the north-eastern part of Samarkand, Uzbekistan.Contents1 History 2 Read also 3 References 4 External linksHistory[edit] The Shah-i-Zinda
Shah-i-Zinda
Ensemble includes mausoleums and other ritual buildings of 9-14th and 19th centuries. The name Shah-i-Zinda
Shah-i-Zinda
(meaning "The living king") is connected with the legend that Kusam ibn Abbas, the cousin of the prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
was buried there. As if he came to Samarkand
Samarkand
with the Arab invasion in the 7th century to preach Islam. Popular legends speak that he was beheaded for his faith
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Topkapı Palace
The Topkapı Palace
Topkapı Palace
(Turkish: Topkapı Sarayı[2] or in Ottoman Turkish: طوپقپو سرايى‎, Ṭopḳapu Sarāyı),[3] or the Seraglio,[4] is a large museum in Istanbul, Turkey. In the 15th century, it served as the main residence and administrative headquarters of the Ottoman sultans. Construction began in 1459, ordered by Mehmed the Conqueror, six years after the conquest of Constantinople. Topkapı was originally called the "New Palace" (Yeni Saray or Saray-ı Cedîd-i Âmire) to distinguish it from the Old Palace in Beyazıt Square. It was given the name Topkapı, meaning Cannon Gate, in the 19th century.[5] The complex was expanded over the centuries, with major renovations after the 1509 earthquake and the 1665 fire. The palace complex consists of four main courtyards and many smaller buildings
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Thuluth
Thuluth
Thuluth
(Persian: ثلث‎ sols, Turkish: Sülüs, from Arabic: ثلث‎ ṯuluṯ "one-third") is a script variety of Islamic calligraphy invented by Ibn Muqlah
Ibn Muqlah
Shirazi.[citation needed] The straight angular forms of Kufic
Kufic
were replaced in the new script by curved and oblique lines. In Thuluth, one-third of each letter slopes, from which the name (meaning "a third" in Arabic) comes. An alternative theory to the meaning is that the smallest width of the letter is one third of the widest part. It is an elegant, cursive script, used in medieval times on mosque decorations
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Stucco
Stucco
Stucco
or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder and water. Stucco
Stucco
is applied wet and hardens to a very dense solid. It is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, and as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco
Stucco
may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, concrete, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, stucco usually refers to a coating for the outside of a building and plaster one for interiors; as described below, the material itself is often little different
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Kharraqan Towers
The Kharraqan towers
Kharraqan towers
are mausoleums, built in 1067 and 1093, located on the plains in northern Iran, near Qazvin. The brick structures stand 15 metres (49 ft) tall and 4 metres (13 ft) wide, and make extensive use of geometry. Inside the older mausoleum there is a lamp and paintings. The eastern tower dates from 1067–68, while the western tower dates from 1093.[1] Both towers appear to be the work of the architect, Muhammad bin Makki al-Zanjani.[2] It is believed that the occupant of the eastern tower was Abu Sa'id Bijar and the occupant of the western tower was Abu Mansur Iltayti.[2] These towers are remnant examples of architecture that existed during the Seljuk period of medieval Persia.[3] 21st century[edit] Both towers were significantly damaged by the 2002 Bou'in-Zahra earthquake
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Qazvin Province
The Qazvin
Qazvin
Province (Persian: استان قزوین‎, Ostān-e Qazvīn) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the north-west of the country, and its center is the city of Qazvin. The province was created in 1993 out of part of Tehran Province. The counties of Qazvin Province are Qazvin
Qazvin
County, Takestan
Takestan
County, Abyek
Abyek
County, Buin Zahra County, Mobarakeh
Mobarakeh
County, Alborz County
Alborz County
& Avaj
Avaj
County
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Safavid
The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
(/ˈsɑːfəvɪd/; Persian: دودمان صفوی‎ Dudmān e Safavi[24]) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.[25] The Safavid shahs ruled over one of the Gunpowder Empires.[26] They ruled one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Iran,[27][28][29][30] and established the Twelver
Twelver
school of Shia Islam
Shia Islam
as the official religion of the empire,[31] marking one of the most important turning points in Muslim history. The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
had its origin in the Safaviyya
Safaviyya
Sufi order, which was established in the city of Ardabil
Ardabil
in the Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
region
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Seljuk
Seljuk beg (سلجوق‬ Saljūq; also romanized Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; modern Turkish: Selçuk; died c. 1038) was an Oghuz Turkic warlord, eponymous founder of the Seljuk dynasty. He was the son of a certain Toqaq surnamed Temür Yalığ (meaning "of the iron bow") and either the chief or an eminent member of the Oghuz Kınık tribe. In 985, the Seljuq clan split off from the bulk of the Tokuz-Oghuz,[1] a confederacy of nine clans long settled between the Aral and Caspian Seas.[2] They set up camp on the right bank of the lower Syr Darya (Jaxartes), in the direction of Jend, near Kzyl Orda
Kzyl Orda
in present-day south-central Kazakhstan
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Ilkhanid
Timeline · History · Rulers · Nobility Culture · Language · Proto-MongolsStates Mongol
Mongol
khanates IX-X Khereid
Khereid
Khanate X-1203
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Timurid Dynasty
The Timurid dynasty (Persian: تیموریان‎), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان‎, Gūrkāniyān), was a Sunni Muslim[1] dynasty or clan of Turco-Mongol
Turco-Mongol
lineage[2][3][4][5] descended from the warlord Timur
Timur
(also known as Tamerlane). The word "Gurkani" derived from "gurkan", a Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kuragan" meaning "son-in-law",[6] as the Timurids were in-laws of the line of Genghis Khan,[7][full citation needed] founder of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire
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Lattice Graph
A lattice graph, mesh graph, or grid graph, is a graph whose drawing, embedded in some Euclidean space
Euclidean space
Rn, forms a regular tiling. This implies that the group of bijective transformations that send the graph to itself is a lattice in the group-theoretical sense. Typically, no clear distinction is made between such a graph in the more abstract sense of graph theory, and its drawing in space (often the plane or 3D space). This type of graph may more shortly be called just a lattice, mesh, or grid
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Koran
The Quran
Quran
(/kɔːrˈɑːn/[a] kor-AHN; Arabic: القرآن‎ al-Qurʾān,[b] literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran[c]) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God
God
(Allah).[1] It is widely
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Compass (drawing Tool)
A pair of compasses, also known simply as a compass, is a technical drawing instrument that can be used for inscribing circles or arcs. As dividers, they can also be used as tools to measure distances, in particular on maps. Compasses can be used for mathematics, drafting, navigation and other purposes. Compasses are usually made of metal or plastic, and consist of two parts connected by a hinge which can be adjusted to allow the changing of the radius of the circle drawn. Typically one part has a spike at its end, and the other part a pencil, or sometimes a pen. Prior to computerization, compasses and other tools for manual drafting were often packaged as a "bow set"[1] with interchangeable parts
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Straightedge
A straightedge or straight edge[1] is a tool with a straight edge, used for drawing straight lines, or checking their straightness. If it has equally spaced markings along its length, it is usually called a ruler. Straightedges are used in the automotive service and machining industry to check the flatness of machined mating surfaces. True straightness can in some cases be checked by using a laser line level as an optical straightedge: it can illuminate an accurately straight line on a flat surface such as the edge of a plank or shelf. A pair of straightedges called winding sticks are used in woodworking to amplify twist (wind) in pieces of wood.Contents1 Compass-and-straightedge construction 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksCompass-and-straightedge construction[edit] Main article: Compass and straightedge An idealized straightedge is used in compass-and-straightedge constructions in plane geometry
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Translation (geometry)
In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction. In Euclidean geometry
Euclidean geometry
a transformation is a one-to-one correspondence between two sets of points or a mapping from one plane to another.[1] A translation can be described as a rigid motion: the other rigid motions are rotations, reflections and glide reflections. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, or as shifting the origin of the coordinate system. A translation operator is an operator T δ displaystyle T_ mathbf delta such that T δ f ( v ) = f ( v + δ ) . displaystyle T_ mathbf delta f(mathbf v )=f(mathbf v +mathbf delta )
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