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Giardia
Giardia
Giardia
agilis Giardia
Giardia
ardeae Giardia
Giardia
lamblia Giardia
Giardia
microti Giardia
Giardia
muris Giardia
Giardia
psittaci Giardia
Giardia
(/dʒiːˈɑːrdiə/ or /ˈdʒɑːrdiə/) is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis. Their life cycle alternates between a swimming trophozoite and an infective, resistant cyst
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PubMed Central
PubMed
PubMed
Central (PMC) is a free digital repository that archives publicly accessible full-text scholarly articles that have been published within the biomedical and life sciences journal literature. As one of the major research databases within the suite of resources that have been developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), PubMed
PubMed
Central is much more than just a document repository
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Cryptic Species
In biology, a species complex is a group of closely related species that are very similar in appearance to the point that the boundaries between them are often unclear. Terms sometimes used synonymously but with more precise meanings are: cryptic species for two or more species hidden under one species name, sibling species for two cryptic species that are each other's closest relative, and species flock for a group of closely related species living in the same habitat. As informal taxonomic ranks, species group, species aggregate, and superspecies are also in use. Two or more taxa once considered conspecific (of the same species) may later be subdivided into infraspecific taxa (taxa within a species, such as bacterial strains or plant varieties), but this is not a species complex. A species complex is in most cases a monophyletic group with a common ancestor, although there are exceptions
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Trophozoite
Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive the wide variety of environments they are exposed to during their complex life cycle.[1] Each stage in the life cycle of an apicomplexan organism is typified by a cellular variety with a distinct morphology and biochemistry. Not all apicomplexa develop all the following cellular varieties and division methods. This presentation is intended as an outline of a hypothetical generalised apicomplexan organism.Contents1 Methods of asexual replication 2 Glossary of cell types2.1 Infectious stages3 See also 4 ReferencesMethods of asexual replication[edit] See also: Fission (biology) Apicomplexans (sporozoans) replicate via ways of multiple fission (also known as schizogony)
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Iron-sulfur Protein
Iron–sulfur proteins are proteins characterized by the presence of iron–sulfur clusters containing sulfide-linked di-, tri-, and tetrairon centers in variable oxidation states. Iron–sulfur clusters are found in a variety of metalloproteins, such as the ferredoxins, as well as NADH dehydrogenase, hydrogenases, coenzyme Q – cytochrome c reductase, succinate – coenzyme Q reductase and nitrogenase.[1] Iron–sulfur clusters are best known for their role in the oxidation-reduction reactions of mitochondrial electron transport. Both Complex I and Complex II of oxidative phosphorylation have multiple Fe–S clusters. They have many other functions including catalysis as illustrated by aconitase, generation of radicals as illustrated by SAM-dependent enzymes, and as sulfur donors in the biosynthesis of lipoic acid and biotin. Additionally, some Fe–S proteins regulate gene expression. Fe–S proteins are vulnerable to attack by biogenic nitric oxide
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Synapomorphy
In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade – characters or traits that are derived from ancestral characters over evolutionary history.[2] An apomorphy is a character that is different from the form found in an ancestor, i.e., an innovation, that sets the clade apart ("apo") from other clades. A synapomorphy is a shared ("syn") apomorphy that distinguishes a clade from other organisms.[1][3] In other words, it is an apomorphy shared by members of a monophyletic group, and thus assumed to be present in their most recent common ancestor. The word synapomorphy, coined by German entomologist Willi Hennig, is derived from the Greek words σύν, syn = shared; ἀπό, apo = away from; and μορφή, morphe = shape. As an example, in most groups of mammals, the vertebral column is highly conserved, with the same number of vertebrae found in the neck of a giraffe, for example, as in mammals with shorter necks
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Cytostome
A cytostome (from cyto-, cell and stome-, mouth) or cell mouth is a part of a cell specialized for phagocytosis, usually in the form of a microtubule-supported funnel or groove. Food is directed into the cytostome, and sealed into vacuoles. Only certain groups of protozoa, such as the ciliates and excavates, have cytostomes.[1] An example is Balantidium coli, a ciliate. In other protozoa, and in cells from multicellular organisms, phagocytosis takes place at any point on the cell or feeding takes place by absorption.Contents1 Structure1.1 Cytopharynx2 Location 3 Function3.1 Associations 3.2 Related structures4 Visualization methods 5 ReferencesStructure[edit] The cytostome forms an invagination on the cell surface and is typically directed towards the nucleus of the cell.[2] The cytostome is often labeled as the entire invagination, but in fact the cytostome only constitutes the opening of the invagination at the surface of the cell
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Synonym (taxonomy)
In scientific nomenclature, a synonym is a scientific name that applies to a taxon that (now) goes by a different scientific name,[1] although the term is used somewhat differently in the zoological code of nomenclature.[2] For example, Linnaeus was the first to give a scientific name (under the currently used system of scientific nomenclature) to the Norway spruce, which he called Pinus abies. This name is no longer in use: it is now a synonym of the current scientific name which is Picea abies. Unlike synonyms in other contexts, in taxonomy a synonym is not interchangeable with the name of which it is a synonym. In taxonomy, synonyms are not equals, but have a different status. For any taxon with a particular circumscription, position, and rank, only one scientific name is considered to be the correct one at any given time (this correct name is to be determined by applying the relevant code of nomenclature)
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Vole
See text.A vole is a small rodent; a relative of the mouse, the vole has a stouter body, a shorter, hairy tail, a slightly rounder head, smaller ears and eyes, and differently formed molars (high-crowned and with angular cusps instead of low-crowned and with rounded cusps). There are approximately 155 species of voles. They are sometimes known as meadow mice or field mice in North America
North America
and Australia. Vole
Vole
species form the subfamily Arvicolinae
Arvicolinae
with the lemmings and the muskrats.Contents1 Description 2 Predators 3 Lifespan 4 Genetics and sexual behavior 5 Inbreeding avoidance 6 Empathy and consolation 7 Vole
Vole
clock 8 Classification 9 References 10 External linksDescription[edit] They are small rodents that grow to 3–9 in (7.6–22.9 cm), depending on the species. They can have five to 10 litters per year
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Genome
In terms of modern molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism. It consists of DNA
DNA
(or RNA
RNA
in RNA viruses)
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Zoologist
Zoology
Zoology
(/zuːˈɒlədʒi, zoʊˈɒlədʒi/) or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems. The term is derived from Ancient
Ancient
Greek ζῷον, zōion, i.e. "animal" and λόγος, logos, i.e. "knowledge, study".[1]Contents1 History1.1 Ancient
Ancient
history to Darwin 1.2 Post-Darwin2 Research2.1 Structural 2.2 Physiological 2.3 Evolutionary 2.4 Classification 2.5 Ethology 2.6 Biogeography3 Branches of zoology 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksHistory[edit] Ancient
Ancient
history to Darwin[edit] Conrad Gesner
Conrad Gesner
(1516–1565)
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Basepair
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds. They form the building blocks of the DNA double helix, and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA
DNA
and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA
DNA
helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.[1] The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA
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Scanning Electron Micrograph
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a type of electron microscope that produces images of a sample by scanning the surface with a focused beam of electrons. The electrons interact with atoms in the sample, producing various signals that contain information about the sample's surface topography and composition. The electron beam is scanned in a raster scan pattern, and the beam's position is combined with the detected signal to produce an image. SEM can achieve resolution better than 1 nanometer. Specimens can be observed in high vacuum in conventional SEM, or in low vacuum or wet conditions in variable pressure or environmental SEM, and at a wide range of cryogenic or elevated temperatures with specialized instruments.[1] The most common SEM mode is detection of secondary electrons emitted by atoms excited by the electron beam. The number of secondary electrons that can be detected depends, among other things, on specimen topography
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Gerbil
Ammodillus Brachiones Desmodilliscus Desmodillus Dipodillus Gerbilliscus Gerbillurus Gerbillus Meriones Microdillus Pachyuromys Psammomys Rhombomys Sekeetamys Tatera TaterillusA young gerbil sitting by the food bowl to eatA mother gerbil sitting with four young gerbilsA gerbil is a small mammal of the subfamily Gerbillinae in the order Rodentia. Once known as desert rats, the gerbil subfamily includes about 110 species of African, Indian, and Asian rodents, including sand rats and jirds, all of which are adapted to arid habitats. Most are primarily active during the day, making them diurnal[1] (but some species, including the common household pet, exhibit crepuscular behavior), and almost all are omnivorous. Gerbils are related to mice and rats; they all belong to the family Muridae. One Mongolian species, Meriones unguiculatus, also known as the clawed jird, is a gentle and hardy animal that has become a popular small house pet
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Trophozoites
Apicomplexans, a group of intracellular parasites, have life cycle stages evolved to allow them to survive the wide variety of environments they are exposed to during their complex life cycle.[1] Each stage in the life cycle of an apicomplexan organism is typified by a cellular variety with a distinct morphology and biochemistry. Not all apicomplexa develop all the following cellular varieties and division methods. This presentation is intended as an outline of a hypothetical generalised apicomplexan organism.Contents1 Methods of asexual replication 2 Glossary of cell types2.1 Infectious stages3 See also 4 ReferencesMethods of asexual replication[edit] See also: Fission (biology) Apicomplexans (sporozoans) replicate via ways of multiple fission (also known as schizogony)
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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