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Giacomo Meyerbeer
GIACOMO MEYERBEER (born JACOB LIEBMANN BEER; 5 September 1791 – 2 May 1864) was a German opera composer of Jewish
Jewish
birth who has been described as perhaps the most successful stage composer of the nineteenth century. With his 1831 opera Robert le diable
Robert le diable
and its successors, he gave the genre of grand opera 'decisive character'. Meyerbeer's grand opera style was achieved by his merging of German orchestra style with Italian vocal tradition. These were employed in the context of sensational and melodramatic libretti created by Eugène Scribe
Eugène Scribe
and were enhanced by the up-to-date theatre technology of the Paris Opéra
Paris Opéra
. They set a standard which helped to maintain Paris as the opera capital of the nineteenth century
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Berlin
BERLIN (/bɜːrˈlɪn/ , German: ( listen )) is the capital and the largest city of Germany
Germany
as well as one of its 16 constituent states . With a steadily growing population of approximately 3.7 million, Berlin
Berlin
is the second most populous city proper in the European Union behind London
London
and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany
Germany
on the banks of the rivers Spree and Havel
Havel
, it is the centre of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region , which has roughly 6 million residents from more than 180 nations. Due to its location in the European Plain , Berlin
Berlin
is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers, canals and lakes
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA (German : Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia
Prussia
, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, where its capital was Berlin
Berlin
. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Astronomer
An ASTRONOMER is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside of the scope of Earth
Earth
. They look at stars , planets , moons , comets and galaxies , as well as many other celestial objects — either in observational astronomy , in analyzing the data or in theoretical astronomy . Examples of topics or fields astronomers work on include: planetary science , solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars , or the formation of galaxies . There are also related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology which studies the Universe
Universe
as a whole. Astronomers usually fit into two types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers make direct observations of planets, stars and galaxies, and analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed
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Rüdersdorf
RüDERSDORF is a municipality in the district Märkisch-Oderland , in Brandenburg
Brandenburg
, Germany
Germany
. CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 Demography * 3 Coat of arms * 4 Notable people * 5 Twin towns * 6 References * 7 External links OVERVIEWThe municipality is situated 26 km (16 mi) east of Berlin
Berlin
centre and includes the three districts Hennickendorf, Herzfelde and Lichtenow. Rüdersdorf
Rüdersdorf
is noted for its limestone-open-pit mining. Some parts of the mine are used as a museum (Museumspark Rüdersdorf
Rüdersdorf
). Some notable buildings in Berlin
Berlin
such as the Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Gate are built with limestone from Rüdersdorf
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Friedrich Georg Weitsch
FRIEDRICH GEORG WEITSCH (8 August 1758, Braunschweig
Braunschweig
– 30 May 1828, Berlin
Berlin
) was a German painter and etcher . Weitsch began his artistic training with his father, "Pascha" Johann Friedrich Weitsch (1723–1803). He attended the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf . After traveling to Amsterdam and Italy between 1784 and 1787, he returned home and became court painter to Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick . In 1794 he became a member of the Berlin
Berlin
Academy of Art and became its director in 1798 (succeeding Bernhard Rode
Bernhard Rode
). He married in 1794 and did not have children. His work included landscapes, history and religious painting, and portraits of royal and civil authorities—the latter showing the influence of Anton Graff
Anton Graff

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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART (/ˈwʊlfɡæŋ æməˈdeɪəs ˈmoʊtsɑːrt/ ; MOHT-sart ; German: ; 27 January 1756 – 5 December 1791), baptised as JOHANNES CHRYSOSTOMUS WOLFGANGUS THEOPHILUS MOZART, was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era . Born in Salzburg
Salzburg
, he showed prodigious ability from his earliest childhood. Already competent on keyboard and violin , he composed from the age of five and performed before European royalty. At 17, Mozart was engaged as a musician at the Salzburg
Salzburg
court, but grew restless and traveled in search of a better position. While visiting Vienna
Vienna
in 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg
Salzburg
position
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Nazi
NATIONAL SOCIALISM (German : Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as NAZISM (/ˈnɑːtsɪzəm, ˈnæ-/ ), is the ideology and set of practices associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party
Nazi Party
, Nazi Germany , and other far-right groups. Sometimes characterised as a form of fascism that incorporates scientific racism and antisemitism , Nazism's development was influenced by German nationalism (especially Pan-Germanism ), the Völkisch movement and the anti-communist Freikorps
Freikorps
paramilitary groups that emerged during the Weimar Republic after Germany's defeat in First World War . Nazism subscribed to theories of racial hierarchy and Social Darwinism , identifying the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race
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Pierre Petit (photographer)
PIERRE LANITH PETIT ( Aups
Aups
15 August 1832 – 16 February 1909 Paris
Paris
) was a French photographer . He is sometimes credited as Pierre Lamy Petit. CONTENTS * 1 Work * 2 Publications * 3 Museums * 4 Photographs * 4.1 Portraits * 4.2 Others * 5 References * 6 External links WORKPetit learned photography in Paris
Paris
in the workshop of André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (1819–1889) (together with 76 other employees). In 1858, he opened his own workshop in Paris
Paris
with Antoine René Trinquart , later to be called La Photographie des Deux Mondes. This proved to be very successful and workshops were opened in Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
and Marseille
Marseille
(in partnership with Emile Cazalis). In his lifetime he made thousands of photographs. In 1908 he handed over the business to his son
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Johann Georg Albrechtsberger
JOHANN GEORG ALBRECHTSBERGER (3 February 1736 – 7 March 1809) was an Austrian musician and composer. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Compositions * 3 References * 4 Sources * 5 External links BIOGRAPHYAlbrechtsberger was born at Klosterneuburg
Klosterneuburg
, near Vienna
Vienna
. He originally studied music at Melk Abbey and philosophy at a Benedictine seminary in Vienna
Vienna
and became one of the most learned and skillful contrapuntists of his age. Albrechtsberger's earliest classmates included Michael Haydn
Michael Haydn
and Franz Joseph Aumann . After being employed as organist at Raab in 1755 and Maria Taferl in 1757, he was appointed Thurnermeister back at Melk Abbey. In 1772 he was appointed organist to the court of Vienna, and in 1792 Kapellmeister of St. Stephen\'s Cathedral
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Reform Judaism
REFORM JUDAISM (also known as LIBERAL JUDAISM or PROGRESSIVE JUDAISM) is a major Jewish denomination which emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai . A liberal religion , it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, and openness to external influences and progressive values. The origins of Reform Judaism
Judaism
lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Abraham Geiger and his associates; since the 1970s, the movement adopted a policy of inclusiveness and acceptance, inviting as many as possible to partake in its communities, rather than strict theoretical clarity. Its greatest center today is in North America
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Rabbi
In Judaism
Judaism
, a RABBI /ˈræbaɪ/ is a teacher of Torah
Torah
. This title derives from the Hebrew word רַבִּי‎ rabi , meaning "My Master" (irregular plural רבנים‎ rabanim ), which is the way a student would address a master of Torah. The word "master" רב‎ rav literally means "great one". The basic form of the rabbi developed in the Pharisaic and Talmudic era, when learned teachers assembled to codify Judaism's written and oral laws. The first sage for whom the Mishnah
Mishnah
uses the title of rabbi was Yohanan ben Zakkai , active in the early to mid first century CE
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Wilhelm Von Humboldt
FRIEDRICH WILHELM CHRISTIAN KARL FERDINAND VON HUMBOLDT (German: ; 22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher , linguist , government functionary, diplomat , and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin , which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, a naturalist ). He is especially remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language and to the theory and practice of education. In particular, he is widely recognized as having been the architect of the Humboldtian education ideal , which was used from the beginning in Prussia
Prussia
as a model for its system of education and eventually in countries such as the US and Japan
Japan
. His younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
, was famous as a geographer, naturalist, and explorer
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Louise Of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
DUCHESS LOUISE OF MECKLENBURG-STRELITZ (Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie; 10 March 1776 – 19 July 1810) was Queen consort
Queen consort
of Prussia as the wife of King Frederick William III . The couple's happy, though short-lived, marriage produced nine children, including the future monarchs Frederick William IV of Prussia
Frederick William IV of Prussia
and German Emperor Wilhelm I . Her legacy became cemented after her extraordinary 1807 meeting with French Emperor Napoleon I
Napoleon I
at Tilsit – she met with the emperor to plead unsuccessfully for favorable terms after Prussia's disastrous losses in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
. She was already well loved by her subjects, but her meeting with Napoleon led Louise to become revered as "the soul of national virtue"
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Synagogue
A SYNAGOGUE, also spelled SYNAGOG (pronounced /ˈsɪnəɡɒɡ/ ; from Greek συναγωγή, synagogē, 'assembly', Hebrew
Hebrew
: בית כנסת‎‎ bet kenesset, 'house of assembly' or בית תפילה bet tefila, "house of prayer", שול SHUL, אסנוגה esnoga or קהל kahal), is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary ), and may also have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and offices. Some have a separate room for Torah
Torah
study , called the beith midrash (Sephardi) beis medrash (Ashkenazi)—בית מדרש ('house of study')
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Order Of Louise
THE ORDER OF LOUISE (German: Luisen-Orden) was founded on 3 August 1814 by Frederick William III of Prussia
Frederick William III of Prussia
to honor his late wife, the much beloved Queen Luise (née Luise Auguste Wilhelmine Amalie, Herzogin zu Mecklenburg-Strelitz). This order was chivalric in nature, but was intended strictly for women whose service to Germany was worthy of such high national recognition. Its dame companion members were limited to 100 in number, and were intended to be drawn from all classes. Though the Prussian king was technically the "Sovereign of the Orders" of the realm, the Chief of the Order of Louise
Order of Louise
was the reigning queen
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