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Ghettos In Nazi-occupied Europe
Beginning with the invasion of Poland during World War II, the regime of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
set up ghettos across occupied Europe in order to segregate and confine Jews, and sometimes Romani people, into small sections of towns and cities furthering their exploitation. In German documents, and signage at ghetto entrances, the Nazis usually referred to them as Jüdischer Wohnbezirk or Wohngebiet der Juden, both of which translate as the Jewish Quarter. There were several distinct types including open ghettos, closed ghettos, work, transit, and destruction ghettos, as defined by the Holocaust historians
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German-occupied Europe
German-occupied Europe
Europe
refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regimes.[1]Contents1 Background 2 Occupied countries2.1 Governments in exile2.1.1 Allied governments in exile 2.1.2 Axis governments in exile 2.1.3 Neutral governments in exile3 See also 4 References 5 Bibliography 6 External linksBackground[edit] Several German occupied countries entered World War II
World War II
as Allies of the United Kingdom[2] or the Soviet Union.[3] Some were forced to surrender before outbreak of the war such as Czechoslovakia;[4] others like Poland
Poland
(invaded on 1 September 1939)[1] were conquered in battle and then occupied
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Calorie
A calorie is a unit of energy. Various definitions exist but fall into two broad categories. The first, the small calorie, or gram calorie (symbol: cal), is defined as the approximate amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius
Celsius
at a pressure of one atmosphere.[1] The second is the large calorie or kilogram calorie (symbol: Cal), also known as the food calorie and similar names,[2] is defined in terms of the kilogram rather than the gram. It is equal to 7003100000000000000♠1000 small calories or 1 kilocalorie (symbol: kcal).[1] Although these units relate to the metric system, all of them have been considered obsolete in science since the adoption of the SI system.[3] The unit of energy in the International System of Units
International System of Units
is the joule. One small calorie is approximately 4.2 joules (so one large calorie is about 4.2 kilojoules)
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Reichsgau Wartheland
The Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Wartheland (initially Reichsgau
Reichsgau
Posen, also: Warthegau) was a Nazi German
Nazi German
Reichsgau
Reichsgau
formed from parts of Polish territory annexed in 1939 during World War II. It comprised the region of Greater Poland
Poland
and adjacent areas. Parts of Warthegau matched the similarly named pre-Versailles Prussian province of Posen
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Piotrków Trybunalski
Piotrków Trybunalski ([ˈpʲɔtrkuf trɨbuˈnalskʲi] ( listen); also known by alternative names) is a city in central Poland
Poland
with 74,694 inhabitants (2016).[1] It is situated in the Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship (since 1999), and was previously the capital of the Piotrków Voivodeship (1975–1998)
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Tuliszków
Tuliszków
Tuliszków
pronounced [tuˈliʂkuf] is a town in Turek County, Greater Poland
Poland
Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,406 inhabitants (2004). In World War II, Tuliszków
Tuliszków
was home to one of the first Jewish ghettos in German-occupied Poland
Poland
following the Nazi German and Soviet invasion of 1939. The ghetto was formed in December 1939 or January 1940.Contents1 History1.1 Jewish community2 See also 3 ReferencesHistory[edit] The oldest mention of Tuliszków
Tuliszków
in 1320 originates from the Chronicle of Kacper Niesiecki,[1] written three centuries later.[2] Known in Latin as Tviliskow, Tuliscov, or Tuliscovo (meaning, fox grounds), it received town privileges in 1458 after the Battle of Grunwald. Featured in the Tuliszków
Tuliszków
coat-of-arms is the knight 'Janusz z Tuliszkowa' holding his Grunwald sword
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Europe
is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe
Europe
as there are scholars of the region".[1] A related United Nations
United Nations
paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct".[2] One definition describes Eastern Europe
Europe
as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe
Europe
with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences.[3][4] Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc
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Warsaw
From top, left to right: Warsaw
Warsaw
Skyline Royal Baths Park Royal Route Staszic Palace
Staszic Palace
and Copernicus Monument
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Odrzywół, Przysucha County
Odrzywół [ɔˈdʐɨvuu̯] is a village in Przysucha
Przysucha
County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland. It is the seat of the gmina (administrative district) called Gmina
Gmina
Odrzywół.[1] It lies in northern part of historic Lesser Poland, approximately 18 kilometres (11 mi) north of Przysucha
Przysucha
and 84 km (52 mi) south of Warsaw
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Kilojoule
The joule (/dʒuːl/); (symbol: J), is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.[1] It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work done on) an object when a force of one newton acts on that object in the direction of its motion through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N⋅m). It is also the energy dissipated as heat when an electric current of one ampere passes through a resistance of one ohm for one second
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Polish Second Republic
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland
Poland
between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939). Officially known as the Republic
Republic
of Poland
Poland
(Polish: Rzeczpospolita
Rzeczpospolita
Polska), the Polish state was recreated in 1918, in the aftermath of World War I. When, after several regional conflicts, the borders of the state were fixed in 1922, Poland's neighbours were Czechoslovakia, Germany, the Free City of Danzig, Lithuania, Latvia, Romania and the Soviet Union. It had access to the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
via a short strip of coastline either side of the city of Gdynia. Between March and August 1939, Poland
Poland
also shared a border with the then-Hungarian governorate of Subcarpathia
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Świętokrzyska Street, Warsaw
Ulica Świętokrzyska (Holy Cross Street) in Warsaw's city center is one of the Polish city's principal thoroughfares. It links the city center with the city's western Wola
Wola
district. The street is named for Holy Cross Church, which stands on Krakowskie Przedmieście. Named after the street are a Warsaw
Warsaw
Metro station and the Świętokrzyski Bridge. The street was closed to traffic and trams from 2011 to March 2015 due to the construction of Warsaw's second Metro line (which runs underneath the length of the street).[1]Świętokrzyska Street, viewed from Palace of Culture and ScienceReferences[edit]^ "Construction of underground enters downtown". ZTM (Public Transport Authority of the capital city of Warsaw). 2011-06-01. Retrieved 2014-01-16. Construction of the central section of the second line of the underground has reached the center of Warsaw
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Transnistria
Transnistria
Transnistria
(Romanian: [transˈnistria]), the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
Republic
(PMR; Russian: Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Romanian: Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Ukrainian: Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria
Transnistria
(the area between the Dniester
Dniester
river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank
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Occupation Of Poland
The occupation of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
during the Second World War
Second World War
(1939–1945) began with the German-Soviet invasion of Poland
Poland
in September 1939, and it was formally concluded with the defeat of Germany
Germany
by the Allies in May 1945
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