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Gheorghe Apostol
Gheorghe Apostol
Gheorghe Apostol
(May 16, 1913 – August 21, 2010) was a Romanian politician, deputy Prime Minister of Romania
Romania
and a former leader of the Communist Party, noted for his rivalry with Nicolae Ceaușescu.Contents1 Early life 2 With Gheorghiu-Dej 3 Hostility to Ceaușescu 4 Family 5 References 6 External linksEarly life[edit] Apostol was born near Tudor Vladimirescu, Galați
Tudor Vladimirescu, Galați
County. After training at the Căile Ferate Române
Căile Ferate Române
(CFR) school, he worked in a CFR foundry in Galați. In 1932, Apostol met Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej, and became involved in the communist underground
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Romanian Communist Party
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin
Latin
communis, "common, universal")[1][2] is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money[3][4] and the state.[5][6] Communism
Communism
includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism
Marxism
and anarchism (anarcho-communism), as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; that in this system there are two major social classes; that conflict between these two classes is the root of all problems in society; and that this situation will ultimately be resolved through a social revolution
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Democratic Socialism
Democratic socialism
Democratic socialism
is a political ideology that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production[1] with an emphasis on self-management or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist or decentralized socialist planned economy.[2] Democratic socialists hold that capitalism is inherently incompatible with the democratic values of liberty, equality and solidarity; and that these ideals can only be achieved through the realization of a socialist society
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Communist Romania
The Socialist Republic
Republic
of Romania
Romania
(Romanian: Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania
Romania
under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic
Republic
(Republica Populară Romînă, RPR). The country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions. As World War II
World War II
ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies
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Ana Pauker
Ana Pauker
Ana Pauker
(born Hannah Rabinsohn; 13 December 1893 – 3 June 1960) was a Romanian communist leader and served as the country's foreign minister in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Ana Pauker
Ana Pauker
became the world's first female foreign minister when entering office in December 1947. She was also the unofficial leader of the Romanian Communist Party immediately after World War II.Contents1 Biography1.1 Early life and political career 1.2 Communist
Communist
leadership position 1.3 Downfall and Scapegoating 1.4 Death 1.5 Legacy2 Family 3 Notes 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Early life and political career[edit] Pauker was born into a poor, religious Orthodox Jewish
Orthodox Jewish
family in Codăești, Vaslui County
Vaslui County
(the region of Moldavia), the daughter of Sarah and (Tsvi-)Hersh Kaufman Rabinsohn
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History Of The Soviet Union (1953–1985)
The "History of Soviet Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union" reflects a period of change for both Russia
Russia
and the world. Though the terms "Soviet Russia" and "Soviet Union" are synonymous in everyday vocabulary, when referring to the foundations of the Soviet Union, "Soviet Russia" refers to the few years after the October Revolution
October Revolution
of 1917, but before the creation of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1922.Contents1 1917–1927 2 1927–1953 3 1953–1964 4 1964–1982 5 1982–1991 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links1917–1927[edit] Main article: History of Soviet Russia
Russia
and the Soviet Union (1917–27) The original ideology of the state was primarily based on the works of Karl Marx
Karl Marx
and Friedrich Engels
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Central Committee
Central Committee was the common designation of a standing administrative body of communist parties, analogous to a board of directors, whether ruling or non-ruling in the 20th century
20th century
and of the surviving communist states in the 21st century. In such party organizations the committee would typically be made up of delegates elected at a party congress. In those states where it constituted the state power, the Central Committee made decisions for the party between congresses, and usually was (at least nominally) responsible for electing the Politburo
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Politburo
A politburo (/ˈpɒlɪtˌbjʊəroʊ/) or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.[1]Contents1 Names 2 History 3 Socialist states 4 Trotskyist
Trotskyist
parties 5 See also 6 ReferencesNames[edit] The term "politburo" in English comes from the Russian Politbyuro (Политбюро), itself a contraction of Politicheskoye Byuro (Политическое бюро, "Political Bureau"). The Spanish term Politburó is directly loaned from Russian, as is the German Politbüro
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Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru
(/ˈneɪruː, ˈnɛruː/;[1] Hindustani: [ˈdʒəʋaːɦərˈlaːl ˈneːɦru] ( listen); 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India
India
and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as the paramount leader of the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi
and ruled India
India
from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic
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Ambassador
An ambassador is an official envoy, especially a high-ranking diplomat who represents a state and is usually accredited to another sovereign state or to an international organization as the resident representative of their own government or sovereign or appointed for a special and often temporary diplomatic assignment.[1] The word is also often used more liberally for persons who are known, without national appointment, to represent certain professions, activities and fields of endeavor such as sales. An ambassador is the ranking government representative stationed in a foreign capital. The host country typically allows the ambassador control of specific territory called an embassy, whose territory, staff, and vehicles are generally afforded diplomatic immunity in the host country. Under the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations, an ambassador has the highest diplomatic rank
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Argentina
Coordinates: 34°S 64°W / 34°S 64°W / -34; -64Argentine Republic[A] República Argentina  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "En unión y libertad" ("In Unity and Freedom")Anthem: Himno Nacional Argentino ("Argentine National Anthem")Sol de Mayo[2] (Sun of May)Location of  Argentina  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Buenos Aires 34°36′S 58°23′W / 34.600°S 58.383°W / -34.600; -58.383Official languages NoneNational language Spanish[a]Regional languagesGuarani in Corrientes;[3] Qom, Mocoví and Wichí in Chaco[4]Religion77.1% Roman Catholicism 10.8% Protestant 10.1% Non-religious 2.6% Other[5]DemonymArgentine Argentinian Argentinean (uncommon)Government Federal presidential constitutional republic• PresidentMauricio Macri•
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Uruguay
Coordinates: 33°S 56°W / 33°S 56°W / -33; -56Oriental Republic of Uruguay República Oriental del Uruguay  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Libertad o Muerte" (Spanish) "Freedom or Death"Anthem: Himno Nacional de Uruguay National Anthem of UruguayLocation of  Uruguay  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Montevideo 34°53′S 56°10′W / 34.883°S 56.167°W / -34.883; -56.167Official languages Spanish[fn 1]National language SpanishEthnic groups (2016[1])88% White 8% Mestizo 4% BlackReligion See Religion in UruguayDemonym UruguayanGovernment Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentTabaré Vázquez• Vice PresidentLucía TopolanskyLegislature General Assembly• Upper houseSenate• Lower hous
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Brazil
Coordinates: 10°S 52°W / 10°S 52°W / -10; -52Federative Republic
Republic
of Brazil República Federativa do Brasil  (Portuguese)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Ordem e Progresso  (Portuguese) (English: "Order and Progress")Anthem: "Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (English: "Brazilian National Anthem")Flag anthem: Hino à Bandeira Nacional[1] (English: "National Flag Anthem")National sealSelo Nacional do Brasil National Seal of BrazilLocation of  Brazil  (dark green) in South America&#
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Open Letter
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.[1] Open letters usually take the form of a letter addressed to an individual but provided to the public through newspapers and other media, such as a letter to the editor or blog.[2] Especially common are critical open letters addressed to political leaders. Currently there are very few sites solely specialising in publishing open letters. However, there are community sites where visitors can publish their own letters and promote them to a wider audience.[3] Sociological or historical research on open letters are also not found, although sociologists, anthropologists and historians have written open letters.[4][5] Letters patent
Letters patent
are another form of open letter in which a legal document is both mailed to a person by the government and publicized so that all are made aware of it
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Radio Free Europe
Radio
Radio
Free Europe/ Radio
Radio
Liberty (RFE/RL) is a United States government-funded broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia
Central Asia
and the Middle East
Middle East
where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".[3] RFE/RL
RFE/RL
is a 501(c)(3) corporation that receives U.S. government funding and is supervised by the Broadcasting Board of Governors, an agency overseeing all U.S
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