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Gettier Case
The Gettier problem, in the field of epistemology, is a landmark philosophical problem with our understanding of knowledge. Attributed to American philosopher Edmund Gettier, Gettier-type counterexamples (called "Gettier-cases") challenged the long-held justified true belief (or JTB) account of knowledge. On the JTB account, knowledge is equivalent to justified true belief, and if all three conditions (justification, truth, and belief) are met of a given claim, then we have knowledge of that proposition. In his three-page 1963 paper, titled "Is Justified True Belief
Belief
Knowledge?", Gettier showed, by means of two counterexamples, that there were cases where individuals had justified the true belief of a claim but still failed to know it because the reasons for the belief, while justified, turned out to be false. Thus, Gettier claimed to have shown that the JTB account was inadequate—it could not account for all of the knowledge
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Charles Sanders Peirce
CDPT: Commens Dictionary of Peirce's Terms CP x.y: Collected Papers, volume x, paragraph y EP x:y: The Essential Peirce, volume x, page y W x:y Writings of Charles S. Peirce, volume x, page yv t e Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce
(/pɜːrs/,[9] like "purse"; September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". He was educated as a chemist and employed as a scientist for 30 years. Today he is appreciated largely for his contributions to logic, mathematics, philosophy, scientific methodology, and semiotics, and for his founding of pragmatism. An innovator in mathematics, statistics, philosophy, research methodology, and various sciences, Peirce considered himself, first and foremost, a logician. He made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that which is now called epistemology and philosophy of science
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Binary Opposition
A nebular opposition (also binary system) is a pair of related terms or concepts that are opposite in meaning. Binary opposition is the system by which, in language and thought, two theoretical opposites are strictly defined and set off against one another.[1] It is the contrast between two mutually exclusive terms, such as on and off, up and down, left and right.[2] Binary opposition is an important concept of structuralism, which sees such distinctions as fundamental to all language and thought.[2] In structuralism, a binary opposition is seen as a fundamental organizer of human philosophy, culture, and language. Binary opposition originated in Saussurean structuralist theory.[3] According to Ferdinand de Saussure, the binary opposition is the means by which the units of language have value or meaning; each unit is defined in reciprocal determination with another term, as in binary code
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Martin Cohen (philosopher)
Martin Cohen (born 1964) is a British philosopher, an editor and reviewer who writes on philosophy, philosophy of science and political philosophy. He is currently Visititng Research Fellow in Philosophy at the University of Hertfordshire(UK). He studied philosophy and social science at Sussex University
Sussex University
where his tutors included some of the early group of philosophers who launched the University's pioneering language and values programme, including Terry Diffey and Bernard Harrison. He obtained a teaching qualification at Keele University
Keele University
and his PhD in philosophy of education from the University of Exeter. After research posts at universities in Britain and Australia, Cohen moved to France to concentrate on his writing, which typically blend "psychological and social studies with philosophical theory ..
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101 Philosophy Problems
101 Philosophy Problems (1999) is a philosophy book for a general audiences by Martin Cohen published by Routledge.Contents1 Format and summary 2 Reception 3 Editions 4 References 5 External linksFormat and summary[edit] The format of the book was unique and later copied by other authors. For example, in Julian Baggini's The Pig That Wants to Be Eaten it was observed that the books "format is essentially the same as that first successfully introduced by Martin Cohen's 101 Philosophy Problems."[1] In a review for the Times Higher Education Supplement (London),[2] Harry Gensler, Professor of philosophy, at John Carroll University, Cleveland, describes the book:"The book has 101 humorous little stories, each with a philosophical problem (not however, necessarily, the usual Unsolved problems in philosophy). For example, problem 54 is about Mr Megasoft, who dies leaving his fortune to his favourite computer
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Brian Skyrms
Brian Skyrms
Brian Skyrms
(born 1938) is a Distinguished Professor of Logic
Logic
and Philosophy of Science
Philosophy of Science
and Economics
Economics
at the University of California, Irvine and a Professor of Philosophy at Stanford University. He has worked on problems in the philosophy of science, causation, decision theory, game theory, and the foundations of probability. Most recently, his work has focused on the evolution of social norms using evolutionary game theory. His two recent books Evolution of the Social Contract and The Stag Hunt are both on this topic
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Alvin Goldman
Alvin Ira Goldman (born 1938) is an American philosopher who is Board of Governors Professor of Philosophy and Cognitive Science at Rutgers University in New Jersey and a leading figure in epistemology.Contents1 Education and career 2 Philosophical work2.1 Action theory 2.2 Epistemology 2.3 Other work3 Bibliography 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksEducation and career[edit] Goldman earned his BA from Columbia University and PhD from Princeton University, and previously taught at the University of Michigan (1963–1980), the University of Illinois, Chicago (1980–1983) and the University of Arizona (1983–1994)
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Carl Ginet
Carl Ginet (born 1932) is an American philosopher and Professor Emeritus at Cornell University. His work is primarily in action theory, moral responsibility, free will, and epistemology. Ginet received his BA from Occidental College in 1954, and his Ph.D. from Cornell in 1960 with a dissertation entitled "Reasons, Causes, and Free Will".[1] He joined the Sage School of Philosophy at Cornell in 1971 and retired in 1999. Before Cornell, Ginet was a faculty member of various universities, including Ohio State University, University of Michigan, and University of Rochester.[2] Ginet is married to Cornell University Professor Emerita Sally McConnell-Ginet[3]Contents1 Selected publications1.1 Books 1.2 Articles2 References 3 External linksSelected publications[edit] Books[edit]Knowledge, Perception, and Memory (1975), Kluwer Academic Print on Demand. ISBN 90-277-0574-7, ISBN 978-90-277-0574-7 On Action (1990), Cambridge University Press
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Potemkin Village
In politics and economics, a Potemkin village
Potemkin village
(also Potyomkin village, derived from the Russian: потёмкинские деревни, Russian pronunciation: [pɐˈtʲɵmkʲɪnskʲɪɪ dʲɪˈrʲɛvnʲɪ] potyomkinskiye derevni) is any construction (literal or figurative) built solely to deceive others into thinking that a situation is better than it really is. The term comes from stories of a fake portable village built solely to impress Empress Catherine II by her former lover Grigory Potemkin
Grigory Potemkin
during her journey to Crimea in 1787
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Catherine The Great
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; 2 May [O.S. 21 April] 1729 – 17 November [O.S. 6 November] 1796), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress
Empress
of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader. She came to power following a coup d'état when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Under her reign, Russia was revitalised; it grew larger and stronger, and was recognised as one of the great powers of Europe. In her accession to power and her rule of the empire, Catherine often relied on her noble favourites, most notably Grigory Orlov
Grigory Orlov
and Grigory Potemkin
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Robert A. Heinlein
Robert Anson Heinlein (/ˈhaɪnlaɪn/;[2][3][4] July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science fiction writer. Often called the "dean of science fiction writers",[5] his sometimes controversial works continue to have an influential effect on the genre, and on modern culture more generally. Heinlein became one of the first American science fiction writers to break into mainstream magazines such as The Saturday Evening Post
The Saturday Evening Post
in the late 1940s. He was one of the best-selling science fiction novelists for many decades, and he, Isaac Asimov, and Arthur C
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Stranger In A Strange Land
Stranger in a Strange Land is a 1961 science fiction novel by American author Robert A. Heinlein. It tells the story of Valentine Michael Smith, a human who comes to Earth in early adulthood after being born on the planet Mars and raised by Martians. The novel explores his interaction with—and eventual transformation of—Terran culture
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Gottlob Frege
Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege
Gottlob Frege
(/ˈfreɪɡə/;[10] German: [ˈɡɔtloːp ˈfreːɡə]; 8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician. He is understood by many to be the father of analytic philosophy, concentrating on the philosophy of language and mathematics. Though largely ignored during his lifetime, Giuseppe Peano
Giuseppe Peano
(1858–1932) and Bertrand Russell (1872–1970) introduced his work to later generations of logicians and philosophers. His contributions include the development of modern logic in the Begriffsschrift
Begriffsschrift
and work in the foundations of mathematics. His book the Foundations of Arithmetic
Foundations of Arithmetic
is the seminal text of the logicist project, and is cited by Michael Dummett
Michael Dummett
as where to pinpoint the linguistic turn
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Stephen Hicks
Stephen Ronald Craig Hicks (born August 19, 1960) is a Canadian-American philosopher. He teaches at Rockford University, where he also directs the Center for Ethics and Entrepreneurship.Contents1 Biography 2 Publications 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksBiography[edit] Hicks earned his Bachelor of Arts (Honours, 1981) and Master of Arts degrees from the University of Guelph, and his Doctor of Philosophy (1991) from Indiana University, Bloomington. His doctoral thesis was a defense of foundationalism.[1] Publications[edit] Hicks is the author of four books and a documentary
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False Premise
A false premise is an incorrect proposition that forms the basis of an argument or syllogism. Since the premise (proposition, or assumption) is not correct, the conclusion drawn may be in error. However, the logical validity of an argument is a function of its internal consistency, not the truth value of its premises. For example, consider this syllogism, which involves a false premise:If the streets are wet, it has rained recently. (premise) The streets are wet. (premise) Therefore it has rained recently. (conclusion)This argument is logically valid, but quite demonstrably wrong, because its first premise is false - one could hose down the streets, the local river could have flooded, etc. A simple logical analysis will not reveal the error in this argument, since that analysis must accept the truth of the argument's premises
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University Of Massachusetts Amherst
The University of Massachusetts
University of Massachusetts
Amherst (abbreviated UMass Amherst and colloquially referred to as UMass or Massachusetts) is a public research and land-grant university in Amherst, Massachusetts, United States, and the flagship campus of the University of Massachusetts system. With approximately 1,300 faculty members and more than 29,000 students, UMass Amherst is the largest public university in New England[10] and is tied for 27th best public university in the nation.[11] The university offers bachelor's degrees, master's degrees, and doctoral degrees in 111 undergraduate, 75 master's and 47 doctoral programs in nine schools and colleges.[5] The main campus is situated north of downtown Amherst. In a 2009 article for MSN.com, Amherst was ranked first in Best College Towns in the United States.[12] In 2012, U.S. News and World Report
U.S

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