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Geshe
GESHE (Tib. dge bshes, short for dge-ba'i bshes-gnyen, "virtuous friend"; translation of Skt. kalyāņamitra) is a Tibetan Buddhist academic degree for monks and nuns . The degree is emphasized primarily by the Gelug
Gelug
lineage, but is also awarded in the Sakya and Bön traditions. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Curriculum * 3 Conferral of the Degree * 4 Sources * 5 References * 6 See also HISTORYThe title Geshe
Geshe
was first applied to esteemed Kadampa masters such as Geshe
Geshe
Chekawa Yeshe Dorje (1102-1176), who composed an important lojong text called Seven Points of Mind Training and Geshe
Geshe
Langri Tangpa (dGe-bshes gLang-ri Thang-pa, 1054-1123). The geshe curriculum represents an adaptation of subjects studied at Indian Buddhist monastic universities such as Nālandā
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Dharma (Buddhism)
DHARMA ( ; Sanskrit : धर्म dharma, listen (help ·info ); Pali : धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism , Buddhism , Sikhism and Jainism . There is no single word translation for dharma in Western languages. In Hinduism , dharma signifies behaviours that are considered to be in accord with rta , the order that makes life and universe possible, and includes duties, rights, laws, conduct, virtues and ‘‘right way of living’’. In Buddhism dharma means "cosmic law and order", but is also applied to the teachings of the Buddha. In Buddhist philosophy , dhamma/dharma is also the term for "phenomena ". Dharma in Jainism refers to the teachings of tirthankara (Jina) and the body of doctrine pertaining to the purification and moral transformation of human beings
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Tradruk Temple
TRADRUK TEMPLE (Tibetan : ཁྲ་འབྲུག་དགོན་པ།, Wylie : khra-’brug dgon-pa, Lhasa
Lhasa
dialect IPA : ʈʂʰaŋʈʂuk kø̃pa, referred to as CHANGZHU MONASTERY in Chinese) in the Yarlung Valley is the earliest great geomantic temple after the Jokhang and some sources say it predates that temple. Tradruk Temple
Tradruk Temple
is located in Nêdong County of Lhoka in the Tibet Autonomous Region , about seven kilometres south of the county seat, Tsetang . CONTENTS * 1 Founding legends * 2 History * 3 Architecture and craftwork * 4 Rituals * 5 Footnotes * 6 References * 7 External links FOUNDING LEGENDSTradruk Monastery is the largest and most important of the surviving royal foundations in the Yarlung Valley. It is said to have been founded in the 7th century under king Songtsän Gampo
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Dzogchen Monastery
DZOGCHEN MONASTERY (Tib. རྫོགས་ཆེན་དགོན། rdzogs chen dgon) is one of the six great monasteries of the Nyingma tradition of Tibetan Buddhism . It is located within modern day Dêgê County , Garzê Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture , Sichuan
Sichuan
, China
China
. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Dzogchen Monastery
Monastery
in India * 3 Dzogchen Monastery
Monastery
in Tibet * 4 Notes * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORY Dzogchen Monastery
Monastery
was founded by Pema Rigdzin, 1st Dzogchen Rinpoche (1625-1697) in 1684
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Labrang Monastery
LABRANG MONASTERY (Tibetan : བླ་བྲང་བཀྲ་ཤིས་འཁྱིལ་, Wylie : bla-brang bkra-shis-'khyil) is one of the six great monasteries of the Gelug
Gelug
school of Tibetan Buddhism . Its formal name is Genden Shédrup Dargyé Trashi Gyésu khyilwé Ling (Tibetan : དགེ་ལྡན་བཤད་སྒྲུབ་དར་རྒྱས་བཀྲ་ཤིས་གྱས་སུ་འཁྱིལ་བའི་གླིང༌།, Wylie : dge ldan bshad sgrub dar rgyas bkra shis gyas su 'khyil ba'i gling). Labrang is located in Xiahe County , Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture , Gansu
Gansu
, in the traditional Tibetan area of Amdo
Amdo
. Labrang Monastery is home to the largest number of monks outside the Tibet Autonomous Region . Xiahe is about four hours by car from the provincial capital Lanzhou
Lanzhou

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List Of Tibetan Monasteries
This LIST OF TIBETAN MONASTERIES is a listing of historical and contemporary monasteries of Tibetan Buddhism within Tibet
Tibet
itself and abroad: The list includes monasteries that were within Tibetan borders when extant, or that were culturally included within the Tibetan tradition. Tibet
Tibet
is home to numerous gompas (Tibetan monasteries). Included are monasteries which belonged to historical Tibet
Tibet
but may now lie within other Chinese provinces
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Ganden Monastery
GANDEN MONASTERY (also Gaden or Gandain) or GANDEN NAMGYELING is one of the "great three" Gelug
Gelug
university monasteries of Tibet
Tibet
, China. It is in Dagzê County
Dagzê County
, Lhasa. The other two are Sera Monastery
Sera Monastery
and Drepung Monastery
Drepung Monastery
. Ganden Monastery
Ganden Monastery
was founded in 1409 by Je Tsongkhapa Lozang-dragpa, founder of the Gelug
Gelug
order. The monastery was destroyed after 1959, but has since been partially rebuilt. Another monastery with the same name and tradition was established in Southern India in 1966 by Tibetan exiles. CONTENTS * 1 Location * 2 History * 3 Structures * 4 Establishment in India * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Sources LOCATIONGanden is 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Lhasa
Lhasa

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Householder (Buddhism)
In English translations of Buddhist texts
Buddhist texts
, HOUSEHOLDER denotes a variety of terms. Most broadly, it refers to any layperson, and most narrowly, to a wealthy and prestigious familial patriarch. In contemporary Buddhist communities, householder is often used synonymously with laity , or non-monastics . The Buddhist notion of householder is often contrasted with that of wandering ascetics (Pāḷi : samaṇa; Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: śramaṇa) and monastics (bhikkhu and bhikkhuni ), who would not live (for extended periods) in a normal house and who would pursue freedom from attachments to houses and families. Upāsakas and upāsikās , also called śrāvakas and śrāvikās - are householders and other laypersons who take refuge in the Three Jewels (the Buddha , the teachings and the community ) and practice the Five Precepts
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Avalokiteśvara
AVALOKITEśVARA ( Sanskrit : अवलोकितेश्वर, "Lord who contemplates", Khmer : លោកេស្វរៈ, Tibetan : སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་, Wylie : spyan ras gzigs, THL : Chenrézik) is a bodhisattva who embodies the compassion of all Buddhas . This bodhisattva is variably depicted and described and is portrayed in different cultures as either female or male. In Chinese Buddhism , Avalokiteśvara has become the somewhat different female figure Guanyin . In Cambodia , he appears as LOKEśVARA, and in Japan he is called KANZEON or KANNON
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Four Stages Of Enlightenment
The FOUR STAGES OF ENLIGHTENMENT in Theravada
Theravada
Buddhism
Buddhism
are the four progressive stages culminating in full enlightenment as an Arahat . These four stages are Sotapanna , Sakadagami , Anāgāmi , and Arahant. The Buddha referred to people who are at one of these four stages as noble people (ariya-puggala) and the community of such persons as the noble sangha (ariya-sangha). The teaching of the four stages of enlightenment is a central element of the early Buddhist schools , including the Theravada
Theravada
school of Buddhism, which still survives
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Buddhahood
In Buddhism
Buddhism
, BUDDHAHOOD ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: बुद्धत्व buddhatva, Pali
Pali
: बुद्धत्त buddhatta or बुद्धभाव buddhabhāva) is the condition or rank of a buddha (/ˈbuːdə/ or /ˈbʊdə/ , Sanskrit
Sanskrit
pronunciation: ( listen ), Pali/ Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for "awakened one"). The goal of Mahayana\'s Bodhisattva
Bodhisattva
path is Samyaksambuddhahood, so that one may benefit all sentient beings by teaching them the path of cessation of dukkha . This contrasts with the goal of Hinayana
Hinayana
path, where the goal is Arhatship
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Buddhist Meditation
BUDDHIST MEDITATION refers to the meditative practices of the Buddhism
Buddhism
religion and associated philosophy . Core meditation techniques have been preserved in ancient Buddhist texts and have proliferated and diversified through teacher-student transmissions. Buddhists pursue meditation as part of the path toward Enlightenment and Nirvana . The closest words for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism
Buddhism
are bhāvanā and jhāna/dhyāna . Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
techniques have become increasingly popular in the wider world, with many non-Buddhists taking them up for a variety of reasons. Buddhist meditation
Buddhist meditation
encompasses a variety of meditation techniques that aim to develop mindfulness , concentration , supramundane powers , tranquility , and insight
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Tertön
TERTöN (Tibetan : གཏེར་སྟོན་, Wylie : gter ston) is a term within Tibetan Buddhism . It means a person who is a discoverer of ancient hidden texts or terma . Many tertöns are considered to be incarnations of the twenty five main disciples of Padmasambhava . A vast system of transmission lineages developed. Nyingma scriptures were updated by terma discoveries, and terma teachings have guided many Buddhist and Bon
Bon
practitioners. CONTENTS* 1 Prominent tertöns * 1.1 The Five Tertön
Tertön
Kings * 1.2 The Eight Great Lingpas * 2 Tertön
Tertön
practices * 3 References * 4 External links PROMINENT TERTöNSAccording to generally accepted history, the rediscovering of terma began with the first tertön, Sangye Lama
Lama
(1000–1080)
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Pāramitā
PāRAMITā ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
, Pali
Pali
) or PāRAMī (Pāli) is "perfection" or "completeness". While, technically, pāramī and pāramitā are both Pāli terms, Pali
Pali
literature makes far greater reference to pāramī. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Theravāda Buddhism
Buddhism
* 2.1 Canonical sources * 2.2 Historicity * 2.3 Traditional practice * 3 Mahāyāna Buddhism
Buddhism
* 4 Tibetan Buddhism
Buddhism
* 5 See also * 6 References * 6.1 Citations * 6.2 Works cited * 7 External links ETYMOLOGY Donald S. Lopez, Jr. describes the etymology of the term: The term pāramitā, commonly translated as "perfection," has two etymologies. The first derives it from the word parama, meaning "highest", "most distant", and hence "chief", "primary", "most excellent"
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Mindrolling Monastery
MINDROLLING MONASTERY (Tib: སྨིན་གྲོལ་གླིང་དགོན་པ་) (Eng: Sublime Island of Ripening Liberation), is one of the six major monasteries of the Nyingma
Nyingma
school in Tibet. It was founded by Rigzin Terdak Lingpa in 1676. Tendrak Lingpa's lineage is known as the Nyo lineage. The name in Tibetan means "Place of Perfect Emancipation". It is located in Zhanang County , Shannan Prefecture , Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region , China , approximately 43 kilometers east of the Lhasa airport, on the south side of the Tsangpo river. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Mindrolling in India
India
* 3 Khochhen Rinpoche
Rinpoche
* 4 References * 5 External links HISTORY The stupa at the Mindrolling Monastery
Mindrolling Monastery
in Tibet
Tibet

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Palcho Monastery
The PALCHO MONASTERY or PELKOR CHODE MONASTERY or SHEKAR GYANTSE is the main monastery in the Nyangchu river valley in Gyantse
Gyantse
, Gyantse County , Shigatse Prefecture
Shigatse Prefecture
, Tibet
Tibet
, China
China
. The monastery precinct is a complex of structures which, apart from the Tsuklakhang Monastery, also includes its Kumbum , believed to be the largest such structure in Tibet, that is most notable for its 108 chapels in its several floors and the old Dzong or fort
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