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Germanisation In Poland (1939–1945)
Germanisation
Germanisation
in Poland (1939–1945) was an intense process of Germanisation
Germanisation
during
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Germanisation
Germanisation
Germanisation
(also spelled Germanization) is the spread of the German language, people and culture or policies which introduced these changes. It was a central plank of German conservative thinking in the 19th and 20th centuries, at a period when conservatism and nationalism went hand-in-hand. In linguistics, Germanisation
Germanisation
also occurs when a word from the German language
German language
is adopted into a foreign language. Under the policies of states such as Teutonic Order
Teutonic Order
state (who arrived from the Holy Roman Empire), Austria, the German Empire, and Nazi Germany, non-Germans were often banned from use of their language,[1] the state discriminated their traditions and culture. When those measures were not successful in eradicating non-Germans, colonists and settlers were used to upset the population balance. With Germanisation (e.g
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Inter Alia
This page lists English translations of notable Latin
Latin
phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. Some of the phrases are themselves translations of Greek phrases, as Greek rhetoric and literature reached its peak centuries before the rise of ancient Rome.This list covers the letter I
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Josef Bühler
Josef Bühler
Josef Bühler
(also referred to as Joseph Buehler) (16 February 1904 – 22 August 1948) was a state secretary and deputy governor to the Nazi Germany-controlled General Government
General Government
in Kraków
Kraków
during World War II.Contents1 Background 2 Nazi career 3 Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
and the Final Solution 4 Post war 5 In popular media 6 Literature 7 ReferencesBackground[edit] Bühler was born in Bad Waldsee
Bad Waldsee
into a Catholic family of 12 children, his father being a baker. After obtaining his degree in law he received an appointment to work under Hans Frank, a legal advisor to Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
and the Nazi Party
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General Government
The General Government
General Government
(German: Generalgouvernement, Polish: Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Ukrainian: Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland
Poland
by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1939 at the onset of World War II. The newly occupied Second Polish Republic
Second Polish Republic
was split into three zones: the General Government
General Government
in its centre, Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
in the west, and Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in the east
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Third Reich
Coordinates: 52°31′N 13°24′E / 52.517°N 13.400°E / 52.517; 13.400 "Drittes Reich" redirects here
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Łódź
Łódź
Łódź
(/wuːtʃ/ WOOTCH, /lɒdz/ LODZ;[1] Polish: [wutɕ] ( listen); Yiddish: לאדזש‎, Lodzh; also written as Lodz)[2] is the third-largest city in Poland and a former industrial centre. Located in the central part of the country, it has a population of 693,797 (2017).[3] It is the capital of Łódź
Łódź
Voivodeship, and is approximately 135 kilometres (84 mi) south-west of Warsaw. The city's coat of arms is an example of canting, as it depicts a boat (łódź), which alludes to the city's name. Łódź
Łódź
was once a small settlement that first appeared in written records in around 1332. In the early 15th century it was granted city rights, but remained a rather small and insubstantial town
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Rzeszów
Rzeszów
Rzeszów
(/ˈʒɛʃuːf/,[2] Polish: [ˈʐɛʂuf] ( listen); Ukrainian: Ряшiв, Ŕašiv; German: Resche (antiquated[3]), Latin: Resovia; Yiddish: ריישע‎, rayshe) is the largest city in southeastern Poland, with a population of 189,637 (01.03.2018).[1] It is located on both sides of the Wisłok River
Wisłok River
in the heartland of the Sandomierz Basin. Rzeszów
Rzeszów
has been the capital of the Subcarpathian Voivodeship since 1 January 1999, and is also the seat of Rzeszów County. The history of Rzeszów
Rzeszów
begins in 1354, when it received city rights and privileges by Casimir III the Great. Local trade routes connecting the European Continent with the Middle East
Middle East
and the Ottoman Empire resulted in the city's early prosperity and development
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Zamość
Zamość
Zamość
pronounced [ˈzamɔɕt͡ɕ] (Yiddish: זאמאשטש Zamoshtsh) is a city in southeastern Poland, situated in the southern part of Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin Voivodeship
(since 1999), about 90 km (56 mi) from Lublin, 247 km (153 mi) from Warsaw
Warsaw
and 60 km (37 mi) from the border with Ukraine. In 2014, the population was 65,149. The historical centre of Zamość
Zamość
was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage List in 1992, following a decision of the sixteenth ordinary session of the World Heritage Committee, held between 7 and 14 December 1992 in Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States
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Blackletter
Blackletter
Blackletter
(sometimes black letter), also known as Gothic script, Gothic minuscule, or Textura, was a script used throughout Western Europe from approximately 1150 to well into the 17th century.[1] It continued to be used for the Danish language
Danish language
until 1875,[2] and for German until the 20th century. Fraktur
Fraktur
is a notable script of this type, and sometimes the entire group of blackletter faces is incorrectly referred to as Fraktur
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World War II Looting Of Poland
The looting of Polish cultural artifacts during World War II was carried out by Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
side by side after the invasion of Poland of 1939. A significant portion of Poland's cultural heritage, estimated at about half a million art objects, was plundered by the occupying German and Russian powers
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Battle Of Grunwald
Kingdom of Poland Grand Duchy of Lithuania Polish–Lithuanian vassals, allies and mercenaries:[1] Czechs, Bohemia,[1] Moravia,[1] Ruthenia,[2] Masovia,[3] Moldavia,[4] Tatars,[2] Wallachia,[5] Smolensk Teutonic Order Allies (Pomerania-Stettin), guest crusaders, and mercenaries from western EuropeCommanders and leadersKing of Poland Władysław II Jagiełło, supreme commander[1] Vytautas
Vytautas
the Great, Lithuanian commanderGrandmaster Ulrich von Jungingen †Strength16,000–39,000 men[6] 11,000–27,000 men[6]Casualties and lossesUnknown (light) Very heavy: 203–211 out of 270 Teutonic knights killed[7]Battle site on a map of modern Polandv t ePolish–Lithuanian– Teutonic WarGrunwald Marienburg KoronowoThe Battle of Grunwald, First Battle of Tannenberg or Battle of Žalgiris, was fought on 15 July 1410 during the Polish–Lithuanian–Teutonic War
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Joseph Goebbels
Paul Joseph Goebbels
Goebbels
(German: [ˈpaʊ̯l ˈjoːzəf ˈɡœbl̩s] ( listen);[1] 29 October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German Nazi politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda
Propaganda
of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
from 1933 to 1945. He was one of Adolf Hitler's close associates and most devoted followers, and was known for his skills in public speaking and his deep, virulent antisemitism, which was evident in his publicly voiced views. He advocated progressively harsher discrimination, including the extermination of the Jews in the Holocaust. Goebbels, who aspired to be an author, obtained a Doctor of Philosophy degree from the University of Heidelberg
University of Heidelberg
in 1921. He joined the Nazi Party in 1924, and worked with Gregor Strasser
Gregor Strasser
in their northern branch
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Sachsenhausen Concentration Camp
The HolocaustOperation BernhardOperated by SchutzstaffelCommandant See listOriginal use 1936-1945Killed 30,000Liberated by Polish Army's 2nd Infantry DivisionPrisoners of Sachsenhausen, 19 December 1938
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Kraków
Kraków
Kraków
(Polish: [ˈkrakuf] ( listen)), also Cracow or Krakow (UK: /ˈkrækaʊ/; US: /ˈkrɑː-/),[2][3] is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula
Vistula
River (Polish: Wisła) in the Lesser Poland
Poland
(Polish: Małopolska) region, the city dates back to the 7th century.[4] Kraków
Kraków
has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life and is one of Poland's most important economic hubs. It was the capital of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
from 1038 to 1569; the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1596[5], the Free City of Kraków
Free City of Kraków
from 1815 to 1846; the Grand Duchy of Cracow
Grand Duchy of Cracow
from 1846 to 1918; and Kraków Voivodeship from the 14th century to 1998
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Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz
Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz
Selbstschutz
(German: ethnic self-defense or self-protection), also known as the Selbstschutz
Selbstschutz
battalions, were a paramilitary organisation consisting of ethnic German Volksdeutsche mobilized from among the German minority in Poland. Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz
Selbstschutz
operated before and during the opening stages of World War II in the western half of the Second Polish Republic,[1] and were responsible for and took part in massacres of ethnic Poles, along with the SS Einsatzgruppen.Contents1 Background 2 History 3 Ethnic cleansing 4 After the conquest of Poland 5 References 6 BibliographyBackground[edit] Throughout the interwar period the Selbstschutz
Selbstschutz
battalions were deployed by the German intelligence not only in newly reborn Poland but also in Czechoslovakia
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