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Germanic Sword
The type of sword popular during the Migration Period
Migration Period
and the Merovingian period
Merovingian period
of European history
European history
(c. 4th to 7th centuries AD), particularly among the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
was derived from the Roman era spatha, and gave rise to the Carolingian or Viking sword
Viking sword
type of the 8th to 11th centuries AD. The blade is normally smooth or shows a very shallow fuller, and often has multiple bands of pattern-welding within the central portion. The handles were often of perishable material and there are few surviving examples
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Vendel Period
In Swedish prehistory, the Vendel Period (550-790) comes between the Migration Period and the Viking Age. The migrations and upheaval in Central Europe had lessened somewhat, and two power regions had appeared in Europe: the Merovingian kingdom and the Slavic princedoms in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. A third power, the Catholic Church, had begun to expand its influence. In Scandinavia, the Germanic clan society was still very much alive. In Uppland, in what today is the east-central part of Sweden, Old Uppsala was probably the centre of religious and political life. It had both a well-known sacred grove and great Royal Mounds
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Vimose
Coordinates: 55°28′N 10°11′E / 55.46°N 10.18°E / 55.46; 10.18This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in German. (January 2017) Click [show] for important translation instructions.View a machine-translated version of the German article. Google's machine translation is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation
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List Of Legendary Swords
Mythological objects encompass a variety of items (e.g. weapons, armour, clothing) found in mythology, legend, folklore, tall tale, fable, religion, and spirituality from across the world
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Högni
Haguna or Hagana is a historical Germanic name. It is attested in the form Hagano in Old High German (8th century) and as Haguna and Hagena in Old English. Old West Norse has Hǫgni, presumably loaned from the character in German legend. Old Danish has Haghni and Hoghni; Old Swedish Haghne and Høghne. The element Hagan- also occurs in dithematic names such as Chagnoald (7th century), Chagoulf (7th century), Haganrih (8th century). It is presumably an extension of the element Hag- which is attested in numerous variants from the 8th century. The etymology of this element cannot be recovered with certainty, especially as these names were conflated from an early time with names in Ag- and Agin-. A derivation from hag- "enclosure" is possible, but Förstemann also considered Old Norse hagr "favour, advantage". Hagen is a character in the German Nibelungenlied, who was adopted in Old Norse sources as Hǫgni
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Skáldskaparmál
The second part of Snorri Sturluson's Prose Edda
Prose Edda
the Skáldskaparmál (Old Norse pronunciation: [ˈskaldskaparˌmɒːl], Icelandic pronunciation: ​[ˈskaultskaparˌmauːl], "language of poetry"; c. 50,000 words) is effectively a dialogue between Ægir, the Norse god of the sea, and Bragi, the god of poetry, in which both Norse mythology and discourse on the nature of poetry are intertwined. The origin of a number of kennings is given; then Bragi
Bragi
delivers a systematic list of kennings for various people, places and things. He then goes on to discuss poetic language in some detail, in particular heiti, the concept of poetical words which are non-periphrastic (like steed for horse), and again systematises these
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Kormáks Saga
Kormáks saga ( modern Icelandic pronunciation (help·info)) is one of the Icelanders' sagas. It tells of the tenth-century Icelandic poet, Kormákr Ögmundarson, and Steingerðr, the love of his life. The saga preserves a significant amount of poetry attributed to Kormákr, much of it dealing with his love for Steingerðr. Though the saga is believed to have been among the earliest sagas composed it is well preserved. The unknown author clearly relies on oral tradition and seems unwilling to add much of his own or even to fully integrate the different accounts he knew of Kormákr. Often he does little more than briefly set the scenes for Kormákr's stanzas.[1] The following stanzas represent some of Kormákr's love poetry. He tells us of the first time he met Steingerðr
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Nægling
Næġling (Old English: [ˈnæjliŋ]) is the name of one of the swords used by Beowulf in the Anglo-Saxon epic poem of Beowulf. The name derives from "næġl", or "nail", and may correspond to Nagelring, a sword from the Vilkina saga. It is possibly the sword of Hrethel, which Hygelac gave to Beowulf (ll. 2190-94).[1][2] Næġling is referenced many times as a fine weapon—it is "sharp", "gleaming", "bright", "mighty", "strong", and has a venerable history as an "excellent ancient sword", "old heirloom", and "old and grey-coloured".[3] However, the sword does not survive Beowulf's final encounter with the dragon, snapping in two—not because of the dragon's strength, but because of the hero's strength:[4]Næġling forbærst, ġeswác æt sæcce sweord Bíowulfes, gomol ond grǽgmǽl. Him þæt ġifeðe ne wæs þæt him írenna eċġe mihton helpan æt hilde; wæs sío hond tó strongBeowulf's hand is "too strong" for the weapon
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Hrunting
Hrunting was a sword given to Beowulf by Unferth in the ancient Old English epic poem Beowulf. Beowulf used it in battle against Grendel's Mother. Beowulf is described receiving the sword in lines 1455-1458:"And another item lent by Unferth at that moment of need was of no small importance: the brehon handed him a hilted weapon, a rare and ancient sword named Hrunting. The iron blade with its ill-boding patterns had been tempered in blood. It had never failed the hand of anyone who hefted it in battle, anyone who had fought and faced the worst in the gap of danger. This was not the first time it had been called to perform heroic feats.[1]However, although the sword possessed great power and was claimed to have never failed anyone who used it, when Beowulf descended to the bottom of the lake to fight Grendel's mother, the sword proved ineffective
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Wayland The Smith
In Germanic mythology, Wayland the Smith
Wayland the Smith
(Old English: Wēland; Old Norse: Völundr, Velentr; Old High German: Wiolant; Proto-Germanic: *Wēlandaz German: Wieland der Schmied; variously Galan and Galand in French;[citation needed] from *Wēla-nandaz, lit. "battle-brave"[1]) is a legendary master blacksmith, described by Jessie Weston as "the weird and malicious craftsman, Weyland".[2] In Old Norse
Old Norse
sources, Völundr appears in Völundarkviða, a poem in the Poetic Edda, and in Þiðreks saga, and his legend is also depicted on Ardre image stone VIII. In Old English
Old English
sources, he appears in Deor, Waldere and in Beowulf
Beowulf
and the legend is depicted on the Franks Casket
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Roman Army
The Roman army
Roman army
(Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
(500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395/476 AD), and its successor the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire. It is thus a term that may span approximately 2,206 years (753 BC to 1453 AD), during which the Roman armed forces underwent numerous permutations in composition, organisation, equipment and tactics, while conserving a core of lasting traditions.[1][2][3]Contents1 Historical overview1.1 Early Roman army
Early Roman army
(c. 500 BC to c. 300 BC) 1.2 Roman army of the mid-Republic
Roman army of the mid-Republic
(c
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Germanic Tribes
The Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
(also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.[1] They are identified by their use of Germanic languages, which diversified out of Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.[2] The term "Germanic" originated in classical times when groups of tribes living in Lower, Upper, and Greater Germania
Germania
were referred to using this label by Roman scribes. The Roman use of the term "Germanic" was not necessarily based upon language, but referred to the tribal groups and alliances that lived in the regions of modern-day Luxembourg, Belgium, Northern France, Alsace, Poland, Austria, the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany, and which were considered less civilized and more physically hardened than the Celtic Gauls
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Germania
Germania
Germania
(/dʒərˈmeɪniə/; Latin: [ɡɛrˈmaː.ni.a]) was the Roman term for the geographical region in north-central Europe inhabited mainly by Germanic peoples. It extended from the Danube
Danube
in the south to the Baltic Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
in the west to the Vistula. The Roman portions formed two provinces of the Empire, Germania Inferior
Germania Inferior
to the north (present-day Netherlands, Belgium, and western Germany), and Germania Superior
Germania Superior
to the south (Switzerland, southwestern Germany, and eastern France). Germania
Germania
was inhabited mostly by Germanic tribes, but also Celts, Balts, Scythians
Scythians
and later on Early Slavs. The population mix changed over time by assimilation, and especially by migration
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Krefeld
Krefeld
Krefeld
(German pronunciation: [ˈkʁeːfɛlt] ( listen)), also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the river Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen
Uerdingen
is situated directly on the Rhine. Krefeld
Krefeld
is accessed by the autobahns A57 (Cologne–Nijmegen) and the A44 (Aachen–Düsseldorf–Dortmund–Kassel). Krefeld
Krefeld
is also called the "Velvet and Silk City". Krefeld's residents speak Hochdeutsch, or standard German, but the native dialect is a Low German
Low German
variety, sometimes locally called Krefelder Plattdeutsch, Krieewelsch Platt, Plattdeutsch, or sometimes simply Platt
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Germanic Mythology
Germanic mythology
Germanic mythology
consists of the body of myths native to the Germanic peoples. Commonly featuring narratives focused on Germanic deities and a large variety of other entities, Germanic mythology dates from the Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
period and reaches beyond the Christianization of the Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and into modern Germanic folklore. Germanic mythology
Germanic mythology
includes Norse mythology, Anglo-Saxon mythology, and Continental Germanic mythology. As the Germanic languages
Germanic languages
developed from Proto-Indo-European language, Germanic mythology
Germanic mythology
is ultimately a development of Proto-Indo-European religion
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Germania Inferior
Germania
Germania
Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province
Roman province
located on the west bank of the Rhine. According to Ptolemy (2.9), Germania Inferior included the Rhine
Rhine
from its mouth up to the mouth of the Obringa, a river identified with either the Aar
Aar
or the Moselle
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