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Germania Secunda
Germania
Germania
Inferior ("Lower Germany") was a Roman province
Roman province
located on the west bank of the Rhine. According to Ptolemy (2.9), Germania Inferior included the Rhine
Rhine
from its mouth up to the mouth of the Obringa, a river identified with either the Aar
Aar
or the Moselle
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Roman Province
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic, and, until the Tetrarchy
Tetrarchy
(293 AD), largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy. The word province in modern English has its origins in the term used by the Romans. Provinces were generally governed by politicians of senatorial rank, usually former consuls or former praetors. A later exception was the province of Egypt, incorporated by Augustus
Augustus
after the death of Cleopatra: it was ruled by a governor of equestrian rank only, perhaps as a discouragement to senatorial ambition
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Legio XXX Ulpia Victrix
Legio trigesima Ulpia victrix ("Trajan's Victorious Thirtieth Legion") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army. It was founded in AD 100 by the emperor Trajan
Trajan
(r. 98-117) for service in the Dacian Wars. The legion was active until disbandment of the Rhine
Rhine
frontier in the beginning of the 5th century. Their emblems were the gods Neptune and Jupiter and the Capricorn. Ulpia is Trajan's own gens (Ulpia), while the cognomen "Victrix" means "victorious", and was awarded after the valliant behaviour in the Dacian wars. The legion's first base camp was in the province of Dacia
Dacia
in the Danube
Danube
fronier, although it's likely that at least some of its legionaries took part in the Parthian campaigns of Trajan. In 122 they were moved to Colonia Ulpia Traiana (modern Xanten) in Germania Inferior, where they remained for the following centuries
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Voorburg
Coordinates: 52°04′N 4°22′E / 52.067°N 4.367°E / 52.067; 4.367The Herenstraat in the town centreThe old church in VoorburgThe old Town Hall 'Swaensteyn' from 1632 Voorburg
Voorburg
is a Dutch town and former municipality in the west part of the province of South Holland, the Netherlands. Together with Leidschendam
Leidschendam
and Stompwijk, it makes up the municipality Leidschendam-Voorburg. It has a population of about 39,000 people. It is considered to be the oldest city in The Netherlands
Netherlands
and celebrated its 2000th year of existence in 1988.[1] In 2002, the cities of Leidschendam
Leidschendam
and Voorburg
Voorburg
were merged under the new municipality named "Leidschendam-Voorburg"
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Nijmegen
Nijmegen
Nijmegen
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈnɛimeːɣə(n)] ( listen);[6] Nijmeegs: Nimwegen [ˈnɪmβ̞ɛːxə]), historically anglicized as Nimeguen,[7] is a municipality and a city in the Dutch province of Gelderland
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Traiectum (Utrecht)
Traiectum was a Roman fort, or castrum, on the frontier of the Roman Empire in Germania Inferior. The remains of the fort are in the center of Utrecht, Netherlands, which takes its name from the fort.[a]Contents1 History 2 Layout 3 Excavations 4 Notes 5 References 6 SourcesHistory[edit] In the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
Traiectum was one of the forts in the lower Limes Germanicus defensive lines. The Emperor Claudius
Claudius
defined the Rhine downstream from Bonn
Bonn
as the western part of the frontier. He ordered the legions further north to withdraw to this line, which was fortified in AD 47. The Rhine
Rhine
divides into several branches in the Netherlands
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Tongeren
Tongeren
Tongeren
(Dutch pronunciation: [ˈtɔŋərə(n)], French: Tongres [tɔ̃gʁ], German: Tongern [ˈtɔŋɐn]) is a city and municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg, in the southeastern corner of the Flemish region
Flemish region
of Belgium. Tongeren
Tongeren
is the oldest town in Belgium, as the only Roman administrative capital within the country's borders. As a Roman city, it was inhabited by the Tungri, and known as Atuatuca Tungrorum, it was the administrative centre of the Civitas Tungrorum district
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Bonn
The Federal City of Bonn
Bonn
(German pronunciation: [ˈbɔn] ( listen)) is a city on the banks of the Rhine
Rhine
in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia, with a population of over 300,000. About 24 km (15 mi) south-southeast of Cologne, Bonn
Bonn
is in the southernmost part of the Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
region, Germany's largest metropolitan area, with over 11 million inhabitants. Because of a political compromise following German reunification, the German state maintains a substantial presence in Bonn, and the city is considered a second, unofficial, capital of the country.[2] Bonn
Bonn
is the secondary seat of the President, the Chancellor, the Bundesrat and the primary seat of six federal government ministries and twenty federal authorities
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Cologne
Cologne
Cologne
(English: /kəˈloʊn/; German: Köln, pronounced [kœln] ( listen), Ripuarian: Kölle [ˈkœɫə] ( listen)) is the largest city in the German federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
and the fourth most populated city in Germany
Germany
(after Berlin, Hamburg, and Munich). It is located within the Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
metropolitan region which is Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas. Cologne
Cologne
is about 45 kilometres (28 mi) southwest of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Dusseldorf
Dusseldorf
and 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bonn. Cologne
Cologne
is located on both sides of the Rhine, near Germany's borders with Belgium
Belgium
and the Netherlands
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Germani Cisrhenani
The germani cisrhenani, Latin
Latin
for Germani "on this side of the Rhine" (cisrhenane), were a group of tribes who lived during classical times to the west of the Rhine
Rhine
river. They are also sometimes referred to as "Left bank Germani".[1] Julius Caesar, the first to use the term, was writing specifically about Germanic tribes near the Meuse
Meuse
river, who had settled among the Belgic Gauls
Gauls
before Roman intrusion into the area
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Romanization (cultural)
Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation: see spelling differences), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the later Roman Empire
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Legio I Minervia
Legio I Minervia ("Minerva's First Legion", i.e., "devoted to the goddess Minerva") was a legion of the Imperial Roman army founded in AD 82 by emperor Domitian (r. 81–96), for his campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti. Its cognomen refers to the goddess Minerva, the legion's protector. There are still records of the I Minervia in the Rhine border region in the middle of the 4th century. The legion's emblem is an image of goddess Minerva. Legio I Minervia first, and main, camp was in the city of Bonna (modern Bonn), in the province of Germania Inferior. In 89, they suppressed a revolt of the governor of Germania Superior
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North Sea
The North Sea
Sea
is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. An epeiric (or "shelf") sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel
English Channel
in the south and the Norwegian Sea
Sea
in the north. It is more than 970 kilometres (600 mi) long and 580 kilometres (360 mi) wide, with an area of around 570,000 square kilometres (220,000 sq mi). The North Sea
Sea
has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery
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Katwijk
Katwijk
Katwijk
( pronunciation (help·info)) is a coastal municipality and town in the province of South Holland, which is situated in the mid-western part of the Netherlands. The Oude Rijn ("Old Rhine") river flows through the town and into the North Sea. Katwijk
Katwijk
is located on the North Sea, northwest of Leiden
Leiden
and 16 km north of The Hague
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Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar[a] (/ˈsiːzər/; 12 or 13 July 100 BC[1] – 15 March 44 BC),[2] usually called Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
and the rise of the Roman Empire. He is also known as a notable author of Latin
Latin
prose. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus
Crassus
and Pompey
Pompey
formed a political alliance that dominated Roman politics
Roman politics
for several years. Their attempts to amass power as Populares were opposed by the Optimates within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger
Cato the Younger
with the frequent support of Cicero
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Gallic Wars
300,000+ fighting men (mainly irregulars)Casualties and losses30,000+ killed, 10,000+ woundedAbout 1,000,000 according to Caesar which mainly includes civilians killed. Modern estimates are significantly lower, but still in several hundreds of thousandsv t eGallic WarsMagetobriga (63 BC) Arar (58 BC) Bibracte
Bibracte
(58 BC) Vosges (58 BC) Axona (57 BC) Sabis (57 BC) Atuatuci (57 BC) Octodurus (57–56 BC) Ambiorix's revolt
Ambiorix's revolt
(54–53 BC) Avaricum
Avaricum
(52 BC) Gergovia
Gergovia
(52 BC) Lutetia (52 BC) Alesia (52 BC) Uxellodunum (51 BC)The Gallic Wars
Gallic Wars
were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
against several Gallic tribes
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