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German Empire
The GERMAN EMPIRE (German : Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich
Deutsches Reich
) was the German nation state that existed from the Unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II
Wilhelm II
in 1918. It was founded in 1871 when Wilhelm I, King of Prussia from the Hohenzollern dynasty was proclaimed the German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles . Berlin
Berlin
became its capital with the Berlin
Berlin
Palace as the Emperor's official residence. Its constitution then entered into force, and Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
became the first Chancellor
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Bavarian Dialects
BAVARIAN (Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch ; German : Bairisch ( listen ); Hungarian : bajor) is a major group of Upper German
Upper German
varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language
German language
area, largely covered by Bavaria
Bavaria
and Austria
Austria
. It forms a continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional variants
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Frisian Languages
The FRISIAN /ˈfriːʒən/ languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages
Germanic languages
, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people , who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea
North Sea
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Germany
Germany
. The Frisian languages
Frisian languages
are the closest living language group to the Anglic languages ; the two groups make up the Anglo-Frisian languages group. However, modern English and Frisian are not mutually intelligible , nor are Frisian languages
Frisian languages
intelligible among themselves, due to independent linguistic innovations and foreign influences. Depending upon their location, the three Frisian languages have been heavily influenced by and bear similarities to Dutch , Low German and/or Danish , respectively
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Low German
Plattdüütsch German : Niederdeutsch, Dutch : Nederduits NATIVE TO Northern Germany Western Germany Eastern Netherlands
Netherlands
Southern Denmark ETHNICITY Dutch , Frisians
Frisians
and Germans
Germans
; Historically Saxons
Saxons
( Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
and modern regional subgroup of Germans) NATIVE SPEAKERS Unknown (est
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Sorbian Languages
The SORBIAN LANGUAGES ( Upper Sorbian : Serbsce; Lower Sorbian
Lower Sorbian
: Serbski) are two closely related languages spoken by the Sorbs , a Slavic minority in the Lusatia
Lusatia
region of eastern Germany
Germany
. They are classified under the West Slavic branch of the Indo-European languages and are therefore closely related to the other two West Slavic subgroups: Lechitic and Czech–Slovak . Historically the languages have also been known as WENDISH (named after the Wends
Wends
, earliest Slavic people in modern Poland and Germany) or LUSATIAN. Their collective ISO 639 -2 code is wen. There are two literary languages: UPPER SORBIAN (hornjoserbsce), spoken by about 40,000 people in Saxony
Saxony
, and LOWER SORBIAN (dolnoserbski) spoken by about 10,000 people in Brandenburg
Brandenburg

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Dutch Language
Aruba
Aruba
Belgium
Belgium
Curaçao Netherlands
Netherlands
Sint Maarten
Sint Maarten
Suriname
Suriname
------------------------- BENELUX EUROPEAN UNION SOUTH AMERICAN UNION CARICOM REGULATED BY Nederlandse Taalunie ( Dutch Language Union ) LANGUAGE CODES ISO 639-1 nl ISO 639-2 dut (B) nld (T) ISO 639-3 nld Dutch/ Flemish
Flemish
GLOTTOLOG mode1257 LINGUASPHERE 52-ACB-a Dutch-speaking world (included are areas of daughter-language Afrikaans
Afrikaans
) Distribution of the Dutch language
Dutch language
and its dialects in Western Europe THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS
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Swabian German
SWABIAN ( SCHWäBISCH (help ·info )) is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German . It is spoken in Swabia , which covers much of the southwestern German state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
, including its capital, Stuttgart
Stuttgart
. It is also spoken in the rural area known as the Swabian Alb , and in the southwest of Bavarian Swabia . Swabian is also nominally spoken by the Danube Swabian population of Hungary
Hungary
, the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
and Romania
Romania
and by the Caucasus Germans
Caucasus Germans

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Alemannic German
ALEMANNIC (German: Alemannisch (help ·info )) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family . The name derives from the ancient Germanic alliance of tribes known as the Alemanni
Alemanni
("all men")
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Calvinism
CALVINISM (also called the REFORMED TRADITION, REFORMED CHRISTIANITY, REFORMED PROTESTANTISM, or the REFORMED FAITH) is a major branch of Protestantism
Protestantism
that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin
John Calvin
and other Reformation-era theologians . Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
in the 16th century. Calvinism
Calvinism
differs from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ
Christ
in the Eucharist , theories of worship , and the use of God\'s law for believers , among other things. As declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, a basic principle is that the Bible
Bible
is to be interpreted by itself, meaning the parts that are harder to understand are examined in the light of other passages where the Bible is more explicit on the matter
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Jews
JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‬ ISO 259-3 Yehudim, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and a nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
. Jewish ethnicity , nationhood , and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism
Judaism
is the traditional faith of the Jewish people, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews
Jews
originated as an ethnic and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant
Levant
known as the Land of Israel
Israel

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Lutheranism
LUTHERANISM is a major branch of Protestant
Protestant
Christianity
Christianity
which identifies with the theology of Martin Luther (1483–1546), a German friar , ecclesiastical reformer and theologian. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in the German-speaking territories of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Beginning with the Ninety-Five Theses , first published in 1517, Luther's writings were disseminated internationally, spreading the early ideas of the Reformation beyond the influence and control of the Roman Curia and the Holy Roman Emperor
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Protestantism
PROTESTANTISM is the second largest form of Christianity
Christianity
with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians
Christians
. It originated with the Reformation , a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church
Catholic Church
. Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic
Catholic
doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments , but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist
Eucharist
. They emphasize the priesthood of all believers , justification by faith alone (sola fide) rather than by good works , and the highest authority of the Bible
Bible
alone (rather than with sacred tradition ) in faith and morals (sola scriptura )
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Lithuanian Language
LITHUANIAN (lietuvių kalba) is the official state language of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is recognized as one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. There are about 2.9 million native Lithuanian speakers in Lithuania
Lithuania
and about 200,000 abroad. Lithuanian is a Baltic language , related to Latvian . It is written in a Latin
Latin
alphabet . Lithuanian is often said to be the most conservative living Indo-European language , retaining many features of Proto-Indo-European now lost in other Indo-European languages
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Czech Language
CZECH (/ˈtʃɛk/ ; čeština Czech pronunciation: ), historically also BOHEMIAN (/boʊˈhiːmiən, bə-/ ; lingua Bohemica in Latin
Latin
), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group , that is extensively influenced by Latin
Latin
and German . It is spoken by over 10 million people and is the official language of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
. Czech is closely related to Slovak , to the point of being mutually intelligible to a very high degree. The Czecho-Slovak group developed within West Slavic in the high medieval period, and the standardisation of Czech and Slovak within the Czech–Slovak dialect continuum emerges in the early modern period
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Polish Language
POLISH (język polski, polszczyzna) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland
Poland
and is the native language of the Poles
Poles
. It belongs to the Lechitic subgroup of the West Slavic languages
Slavic languages
. Polish is the official language of Poland, but it is also used throughout the world by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 55 million Polish language
Polish language
speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union
European Union
. Its written standard is the Polish alphabet , which has 9 additions to the letters of the basic Latin script
Latin script
(ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Polish is closely related to Kashubian , Silesian , Upper Sorbian , Lower Sorbian , Czech and Slovak
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New Imperialism
In historical contexts, NEW IMPERIALISM characterises a period of colonial expansion by European powers , the United States
United States
, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The period featured an unprecedented pursuit of overseas territorial acquisitions. At the time, states focused on building their empires with new technological advances and developments, making their territory bigger through conquest, and exploiting their resources. During the era of New Imperialism, the Western powers (and Japan) individually conquered almost all of Africa
Africa
and parts of Asia. The new wave of imperialism reflected ongoing rivalries among the great powers , the economic desire for new resources and markets, and a "civilizing mission " ethos. Many of the colonies established during this era gained independence during the era of decolonization that followed World War II
World War II

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