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Georgian Alphabet
The Georgian scripts
Georgian scripts
are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
and Mkhedruli. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase, their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to right
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Phoenician Alphabet
Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCE Proto-Sinaitic
Proto-Sinaitic
19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c. BCEPhoenician 12 c. BCE Paleo-Hebrew
Paleo-Hebrew
10 c. BCE Samaritan
Samaritan
6 c. BCE Libyco-Berber
Libyco-Berber
3 c. BCETifinaghPaleohispanic (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE Aramaic
Aramaic
8 c. BCE Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
4 c. BCE Brāhmī 4 c. BCE Brahmic family
Brahmic family
(see)E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CECanadian syllabics 1840Hebrew 3 c. BCE Pahlavi 3 c. BCEAvestan 4 c. CEPalmyrene 2 c. BCE Syriac 2 c. BCENabataean 2 c. BCEArabic 4 c. CEN'Ko 1949 CESogdian 2 c
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Christianization Of Iberia
The Christianization
Christianization
of Iberia (Georgian: ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity
Christianity
in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino
Saint Nino
in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli, known as Iberia in the Classical antiquity, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King
King
Mirian III of Iberia
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Svan Alphabet
The Svan language
Svan language
(Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; Georgian: სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti
Svaneti
primarily by the Svan people.[4][5] With its speakers variously estimated to be between 30,000 and 80,000, the UNESCO
UNESCO
designates Svan as a "definitely endangered language".[6] It is of particular interest because it has retained many archaic features that have been lost in the other Kartvelian languages.Contents1 Features1.1 Familial features 1.2 Distinguishing features2 Distribution 3 History 4 Dialects 5 Phonology5.1 Consonants 5.2 Vowels 5.3 Alphabet6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 General references7 External linksFeatures[edit] Familial features[edit] Like all languages of the Kartvelian family, Svan has a large number of consonants
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Diacritic
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, or diacritical sign – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic
Diacritic
is primarily an adjective, though sometimes used as a noun, whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script
Latin script
is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added
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UNESCO
The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
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Armenian Apostolic Church
The Armenian Apostolic Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
(Armenian: Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak'elakan Yekeghetsi)[a] is the national church of the Armenian people. Part of Oriental Orthodoxy, it is one of the most ancient Christian communities.[3] Armenia
Armenia
was the first country to adopt Christianity
Christianity
as its official religion in the early 4th century.[4] The church claims to have originated in the missions of Apostles
Apostles
Bartholomew and Thaddeus in the 1st century, by tradition. It is sometimes referred to as the Armenian Orthodox Church or Gregorian Church. The latter is not preferred by the church itself, as it views the Apostles
Apostles
Bartholomew and Thaddeus as its founders, and St. Gregory the Illuminator
Gregory the Illuminator
as merely the first official governor of the church
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Bir El Qutt Inscriptions
The Bir el Qutt inscriptions
Bir el Qutt inscriptions
(Georgian: ბირ ელ ყუტის წარწერები, Bir el Qut’is C’arc’erebi) are the Georgian language
Georgian language
Byzantine mosaic inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script which were excavated at a St. Theodore Georgian monastery in 1952[1] by an Italian archaeologist Virgilio Canio Corbo near Bir el Qutt, in the Judaean Desert, 6 km south-east of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and 2 km north of Bethlehem.[2] Georgian inscriptions were found on a mosaic floor.[3][4][5] Two inscriptions are dated the first one AD 388-392, the second one AD 430 and the third one AD 532.[6][7] The monastery where the inscriptions were excavated was founded or rebuilt by the Georgian philosopher and royal prince Peter the Iberian
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Bolnisi Inscriptions
The Bolnisi
Bolnisi
inscriptions (Georgian: ბოლნისის წარწერები) are the Georgian language
Georgian language
inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script on the Bolnisi
Bolnisi
Sioni Cathedral, a basilica located in Bolnisi, Bolnisi
Bolnisi
Municipality, Georgia
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Kartli
Kartli
Kartli
(Georgian: ქართლი [kʰartʰli] ( listen)) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari
Mtkvari
(Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi, is situated. Known to the Classical authors as Iberia, Kartli
Kartli
played a crucial role in the ethnic and political consolidation of the Georgians
Georgians
in the Middle Ages. Kartli
Kartli
had no strictly defined boundaries and they significantly fluctuated in the course of history. After the partition of the kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Kartli
Kartli
became a separate kingdom with its capital at Tbilisi
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Svan Language
The Svan language
Svan language
(Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; Georgian: სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti
Svaneti
primarily by the Svan people.[4][5] With its speakers variously estimated to be between 30,000 and 80,000, the UNESCO
UNESCO
designates Svan as a "definitely endangered language".[6] It is of particular interest because it has retained many archaic features that have been lost in the other Kartvelian languages.Contents1 Features1.1 Familial features 1.2 Distinguishing features2 Distribution 3 History 4 Dialects 5 Phonology5.1 Consonants 5.2 Vowels 5.3 Alphabet6 References6.1 Notes 6.2 General references7 External linksFeatures[edit] Familial features[edit] Like all languages of the Kartvelian family, Svan has a large number of consonants
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Mirian III Of Iberia
Mirian III (Georgian: მირიან III) was a king of Iberia or Kartli
Kartli
(Georgia), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Constantine the Great (r. 306–337). He was the founder of the royal Chosroid dynasty. According to the early medieval Georgian annals and hagiography, Mirian was the first Christian king of Iberia, converted through the ministry of Nino, a Cappadocian female missionary
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Aramaic Alphabet
Hebrew Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac  →Sogdian    →Old Uyghur      →Mongolian  →Nabataean alphabet    →Arabic alphabet      →N'Ko alphabetDirection Right-to-leftISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
aliasImperial Aramaic Unicode
Unicode
rangeU+10840–U+1085FThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.History of the alphabet Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCEDemotic 7 c. BCEMeroitic 3 c. BCEProto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCEUgaritic 15 c. BCE Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCEGe’ez 5–6 c
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Old Georgian Language
Old Georgian (Georgian: ძველი ქართული ენა dzveli kartuli ena, Old Georgian: ႤႬႠჂ ႵႠႰႧႳႪႨ, enay kartuli) the literary language of Georgian monarchies in the 5th century. The language remains in use as the liturgical language of the Georgian Orthodox Church. Spoken Old Georgian gave way to what is classified as Middle Georgian
Middle Georgian
in the 11th century, which in turn developed into the modern Georgian language
Georgian language
in the 18th century.Contents1 Periodization 2 Texts 3 Phoneme inventory 4 Script 5 Orthography 6 Notes 7 ReferencesPeriodization[edit] Two periods are distinguished within Old Georgian: Early Old Georgian (5th to 8th centuries) and Classical Old Georgian (9th to 11th centuries). Two different dialects are represented in Early Old Georgian, known as Khanmet’i (ხანმეტი, 5th to 7th c.) and Haemet’i (ჱაემეტი, 7th and 8th c.)
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Levan Chilashvili
Levan Chilashvili (Georgian: ლევან ჭილაშვილი) (August 17, 1930 – April 26, 2004) was a famous Georgian archaeologist and historian, an academician of the Georgian Academy of Sciences
Georgian Academy of Sciences
(GAS), Meritorious Scholar of Georgia, Doctor of Historical Sciences, and Professor. In 1954, he graduated from the Faculty of History of Tbilisi State University (TSU), where he was also a professor from 1967 until his death in 2004
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Nekresi
Nekresi
Nekresi
(Georgian: ნეკრესი) is a historic town in Kakheti, Georgia, in modern-day Kvareli Municipality, near the village of Shilda. The town was established by king Pharnajom (around 2nd-1st centuries BC). In the 4th century AD, king Thrdat built a church in this place. This church became a refuge to one of the Assyrian fathers, Abibus, in the late 6th century
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