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Georgian Alphabet
The GEORGIAN SCRIPTS are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language
Georgian language
: ASOMTAVRULI, NUSKHURI and MKHEDRULI. Although the systems differ in appearance, all three are unicase , their letters share the same names and alphabetical order, and are written horizontally from left to right . Of the three scripts, Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
was the civilian royal script of the Kingdom of Georgia
Kingdom of Georgia
mostly used for the royal charters . Mkhedruli
Mkhedruli
is the standard script for modern Georgian and its related Kartvelian languages
Kartvelian languages
, whereas Asomtavruli and Nuskhuri
Nuskhuri
are used only in ceremonial religious texts and iconography by the Georgian Orthodox Church
Georgian Orthodox Church

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Bir El Qutt Inscriptions
The BIR EL QUTT INSCRIPTIONS (Georgian : ბირ ელ ყუტის წარწერები) are the Georgian language Byzantine mosaic inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli script which were excavated at a St. Theodore Georgian monastery in 1952 by an Italian archaeologist Virgilio Canio Corbo near Bir el Qutt, in the Judaean Desert
Judaean Desert
, 6 km south-east of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and 2 km north of Bethlehem
Bethlehem
. Georgian inscriptions were found on a mosaic floor. Two inscriptions are dated AD 430 and the third one AD 532. The monastery where the inscriptions were excavated was founded or rebuilt by the Georgian philosopher and royal prince Peter the Iberian . One of the inscriptions mentions him with his father. The other inscription mentions Bacurius the Iberian who is thought to be a possible grandfather of Peter
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Bolnisi Inscriptions
The BOLNISI INSCRIPTIONS (Georgian : ბოლნისის წარწერები) are the Georgian language
Georgian language
inscriptions written in the Georgian Asomtavruli
Asomtavruli
script on the Bolnisi
Bolnisi
Sioni Cathedral , a basilica located in Bolnisi
Bolnisi
, Bolnisi
Bolnisi
Municipality , Georgia . The inscriptions are dated 494 AD
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Christianization Of Iberia
The CHRISTIANIZATION OF IBERIA (Georgian : ქართლის გაქრისტიანება kartlis gakrist'ianeba) refers to the spread of Christianity
Christianity
in an early 4th century by the sermon of Saint Nino
Saint Nino
in an ancient Georgian kingdom of Kartli
Kartli
, known as Iberia in the Classical antiquity
Classical antiquity
, which resulted in declaring it as a state religion by then-pagan King
King
Mirian III of Iberia . Per Sozomen , this led the king's "large and warlike barbarian nation to confess Christ and renounce the religion of their fathers". The king would become the main sponsor, architect, initiator and an organizing power of all building processes
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UNESCO
The UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO; French : Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris
Paris
. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law , and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter . It is the successor of the League of Nations
League of Nations
' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation . UNESCO
UNESCO
has 195 member states and ten associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist
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Cultural Heritage
CULTURAL HERITAGE is the legacy of physical science artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. Cultural heritage
Cultural heritage
includes tangible culture (such as buildings, monuments, landscapes, books, works of art, and artifacts), intangible culture (such as folklore, traditions, language, and knowledge), and natural heritage (including culturally significant landscapes, and biodiversity ). The deliberate act of keeping cultural heritage from the present for the future is known as preservation (American English) or conservation (British English), though these terms may have more specific or technical meaning in the same contexts in the other dialect
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Donald Rayfield
DONALD RAYFIELD (born 1942, Oxford
Oxford
) is professor of Russian and Georgian at Queen Mary University of London . He is an author of books about Russian and Georgian literature, and about Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
and his secret police . He is also a series editor for books about Russian writers and intelligentsia . He translated Georgian and Russian poets and prose writers
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Svan Alphabet
The SVAN LANGUAGE (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; Georgian : სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people
Svan people
. With its speakers variously estimated to be between 30,000 and 80,000, the UNESCO
UNESCO
designates Svan as a "definitely endangered language ". It is of particular interest because it has retained many archaic features that have been lost in the other Kartvelian languages. CONTENTS* 1 Features * 1.1 Familial features * 1.2 Distinguishing features * 2 Distribution * 3 History * 4 Dialects * 5 Phonology * 5.1 Consonants * 5.2 Vowels * 5.3 Alphabet * 6 References * 6.1 Notes * 6.2 General references * 7 External links FEATURESFAMILIAL FEATURESLike all languages of the Kartvelian family, Svan has a large number of consonants
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Diacritic
A DIACRITIC – also DIACRITICAL MARK, DIACRITICAL POINT, or DIACRITICAL SIGN – is a glyph added to a letter , or basic glyph. The term derives from the Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
διακριτικός (diakritikós, "distinguishing"), from διακρίνω (diakrī́nō, "to distinguish"). Diacritic
Diacritic
is primarily an adjective , though sometimes used as a noun , whereas diacritical is only ever an adjective. Some diacritical marks, such as the acute ( ´ ) and grave ( ` ), are often called accents. Diacritical marks may appear above or below a letter, or in some other position such as within the letter or between two letters. The main use of diacritical marks in the Latin script is to change the sound-values of the letters to which they are added
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Kartli
KARTLI (Georgian : ქართლი ( listen )) is a historical region in central-to-eastern Georgia traversed by the river Mtkvari (Kura), on which Georgia's capital, Tbilisi
Tbilisi
, is situated. Known to the Classical authors as Iberia , Kartli
Kartli
played a crucial role in the ethnic and political consolidation of the Georgians
Georgians
in the Middle Ages . Kartli
Kartli
had no strictly defined boundaries and they significantly fluctuated in the course of history. After the partition of the kingdom of Georgia in the 15th century, Kartli
Kartli
became a separate kingdom with its capital at Tbilisi
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Mirian III Of Iberia
MIRIAN III (Georgian : მირიან III) was a king of Iberia or Kartli
Kartli
(Georgia ), contemporaneous to the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Constantine the Great (r. 306–337). The founder of the royal Chosroid dynasty . According to the early medieval Georgian annals and hagiography, Mirian was the first Christian king of Iberia, converted through the ministry of Nino , a Cappadocian female missionary. He is credited with establishment of Christianity
Christianity
as his kingdom's state religion and is regarded by the Georgian Orthodox Church
Georgian Orthodox Church
as saint and is canonized as SAINT EQUAL TO THE APOSTLES KING MIRIAN (Georgian : წმინდა მოციქულთასწორი მეფე მირიანი)
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Pharnavaz I Of Iberia
PHARNAVAZ I (Georgian : ფარნავაზ I Georgian pronunciation: ) also transliterated as PARNAVAZ or FARNAVAZiv was a king of Kartli
Kartli
, an ancient Georgian kingdom known as Iberia to the Classical sources. The Georgian Chronicles credits him with being the first monarch founding the kingship of Kartli
Kartli
and the Pharnavazid dynasty , while another independent chronicles, The Conversion of Kartli
Kartli
makes him the second Georgian monarch. Based on the medieval evidence, most scholars locate Pharnavaz’s rule in the 3rd century BC: 302–237 BC according to Prince Vakhushti of Kartli
Kartli
, 299–234 BC according to Cyril Toumanoff and 284–219 BC according to Pavle Ingoroqva
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Mesrop Mashtots
MESROP MASHTOTS listen (help ·info ) (Armenian : Մեսրոպ Մաշտոց Mesrop Maštoc'; Eastern Armenian: ; Western Armenian: ; Latin : Mesrobes Mastosius; 362 – February 17, 440 AD), also known as MESROB THE VARTABED, was an early medieval Armenian linguist , theologian , statesman and hymnologist . He is best known for inventing the Armenian alphabet
Armenian alphabet
c. 405 AD, which was a fundamental step in strengthening Armenian national identity. He was also the creator of the Caucasian Albanian , according to a number of scholars and contemporaneous Armenian sources. CONTENTS * 1 Life * 2 Honors * 3 Music * 4 Documentary films * 5 Further reading * 6 See also * 7 External links * 8 References LIFE Mesrop Mashtots
Mesrop Mashtots
creating the Armenian alphabet, by Francesco Maggiotto (1750-1805)
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Aramaic Alphabet
Hebrew
Hebrew
Palmyrene Mandaic Pahlavi Brāhmī Kharoṣṭhī Syriac →Sogdian →Old Uyghur →Mongolian → Nabataean alphabet Arabic alphabet
Arabic alphabet
→N\'Ko alphabet DIRECTION Right-to-left ISO 15924 Armi, 124 Imperial Aramaic UNICODE ALIAS Imperial Aramaic UNICODE RANGE U+10840–U+1085F THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS IPA PHONETIC SYMBOLS. Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. History of the alphabet ------------------------- Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
32 c. BCE * Hieratic
Hieratic
32 c. BCE * Demotic 7 c. BCE * Meroitic 3 c. BCE* Proto-Sinaitic 19 c. BCE * Ugaritic 15 c. BCE* Epigraphic South Arabian 9 c. BCE * Ge’ez 5–6 c
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Kakheti
KAKHETI (Georgian : კახეთი ) is a region (Georgian: Mkhare ) formed in the 1990s in eastern Georgia from the historical province of Kakheti
Kakheti
and the small, mountainous province of Tusheti . Telavi is its capital. The region comprises eight administrative districts: Telavi , Gurjaani , Kvareli , Sagarejo , Dedoplistsqaro , Signagi , Lagodekhi and Akhmeta . Kakheti
Kakheti
is bordered by the Russian Federation to the Northeast, Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to the Southeast, and the Georgian regions of Mtskheta-Mtianeti
Mtskheta-Mtianeti
and Kvemo Kartli
Kvemo Kartli
to the west. The Georgian David Gareja monastery complex
David Gareja monastery complex
is partially located in this province and is subject to a border dispute between Georgian and Azerbaijani authorities
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Nekresi
NEKRESI (Georgian : ნეკრესი) is a historic town in Kakheti
Kakheti
, Georgia , in modern day Kvareli Municipality , near the village of Shilda. The town was established by king Pharnajom (around 2nd-1st centuries BC). In the 4th century AD, king Thrdat built a church in this place. This church became a refuge to one of the Assyrian fathers, Abibus , in the late 6th century. Around this time Diocese of Nekresi
Nekresi
was established, which existed until the 19th century. The church was recently restored, stone masonry repaired, roof rebuilt, windows put in place
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