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George Dance The Younger
GEORGE DANCE THE YOUNGER, RA (1 April 1741 – 14 January 1825) was an English architect and surveyor as well as a portraitist . The fifth and youngest son of the architect George Dance (the elder) , he came from a family of architects, artists and dramatists. He was described by Sir John Summerson
John Summerson
as "among the few really outstanding architects of the century", but few of his buildings remain
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Chimneypiece
The FIREPLACE MANTEL or MANTELPIECE, also known as a CHIMNEYPIECE, originated in medieval times as a hood that projected over a fire grate to catch the smoke . The term has evolved to include the decorative framework around the fireplace, and can include elaborate designs extending to the ceiling. Mantelpiece is now the general term for the jambs , mantel shelf, and external accessories of a fireplace. For many centuries, the chimneypiece was the most ornamental and most artistic feature of a room, but as fireplaces have become smaller, and modern methods of heating have been introduced, its artistic as well as its practical significance has lessened
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St. Peter's Basilica
The PAPAL BASILICA OF ST. PETER IN THE VATICAN (Italian : Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply ST. PETER\'S BASILICA (Latin : Basilica
Basilica
Sancti Petri), is an Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
church in Vatican City
Vatican City
, the papal enclave within the city of Rome
Rome
. Designed principally by Donato Bramante , Michelangelo
Michelangelo
, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini , St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture and the largest church in the world . While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
nor the cathedral of the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome
Rome
, St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines
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Temple Of Vesta, Tivoli
The "TEMPLE OF VESTA" is a Roman temple
Roman temple
in Tivoli, Italy
Tivoli, Italy
, dating to the early 1st century BC. Its ruins sit on the acropolis of the city, overlooking the falls of the Aniene
Aniene
that are now included in the Villa Gregoriana . It is not known for certain to whom the temple was dedicated, whether to Hercules
Hercules
, the protecting god of Tibur, or to Albunea, the Tiburtine Sibyl
Tiburtine Sibyl
, or to Tiburnus, the eponymous hero of the city, or to Vesta herself, whose more familiar circular peripteral Temple of Vesta is to be seen in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
. A rectangular temple stands nearby, equally difficult to attribute, often called the Temple of the Sibyl"
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Parma
PARMA listen (help ·info ) (Emilian : Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese , architecture , music and surrounding countryside. It is home to the University of Parma , one of the oldest universities in the world. Parma
Parma
is divided into two parts by the stream of the same name . The district on the far side of the river is Oltretorrente. Parma's Etruscan name was adapted by Romans to describe the round shield called Parma
Parma
. The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci (born in a hamlet in the countryside) wrote: "As a capital city it had to have a river. As a little capital it received a stream, which is often dry"
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Neoclassical Architecture
NEOCLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style principally derived from the architecture of classical antiquity , the Vitruvian principles, and the work of the Italian architect Andrea Palladio . In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro and maintains separate identities to each of its parts. The style is manifested both in its details as a reaction against the Rococo style of naturalistic ornament, and in its architectural formulae as an outgrowth of some classicising features of the Late Baroque architectural tradition. Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings
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Arch Of Constantine
The ARCH OF CONSTANTINE (Italian : Arco di Costantino) is a triumphal arch in Rome
Rome
, situated between the Colosseum
Colosseum
and the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
. It was erected by the Roman Senate
Roman Senate
to commemorate Constantine I
Constantine I
's victory over Maxentius
Maxentius
at the Battle of Milvian Bridge
Battle of Milvian Bridge
in 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch. The arch spans the Via triumphalis , the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph . Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the decorative material incorporated earlier work from the time of the emperors Trajan (98–117), Hadrian
Hadrian
(117–138) and Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
(161–180), and is thus a collage
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Temple Of Castor And Pollux
Coordinates : 41°53′29.88″N 12°29′8.74″E / 41.8916333°N 12.4857611°E / 41.8916333; 12.4857611 TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX Temple of Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
LOCATION Regione VIII Forum Romanum BUILT IN 495 BC BUILT BY/FOR Roman Republic
Roman Republic
TYPE OF STRUCTURE Roman Temple
Roman Temple
RELATED List of ancient monuments in Rome
Rome
Temple of Castor and Pollux
Castor and Pollux
Wikimedia Commons has media related to TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX, ROME .The TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX (Italian : Tempio dei Dioscuri) is an ancient temple in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
, Rome
Rome
, central Italy
Italy
. It was originally built in gratitude for victory at the Battle of Lake Regillus (495 BC)
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Robert Mylne (architect)
ROBERT MYLNE (4 January 1733 – 5 May 1811) was a Scottish architect and civil engineer , particularly remembered for his design for Blackfriars Bridge
Blackfriars Bridge
in London. Born and raised in Edinburgh, he travelled to Europe as a young man, studying architecture in Rome under Piranesi
Piranesi
. In 1758 he became the first Briton to win the triennial architecture competition at the Accademia di San Luca
Accademia di San Luca
, which made his name known in London, and won him the rivalry of fellow Scot Robert Adam
Robert Adam
. On his return to Britain, Mylne won the competition to design the new Blackfriars Bridge
Blackfriars Bridge
over the Thames in London, his design being chosen over those of established engineers, such as John Smeaton
John Smeaton

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Peter Grant (abbé)
PETER GRANT (died 1 September 1784) was a Scottish Roman Catholic priest, agent and abbé , later in life an important liaison for British Catholic visitors in Rome. LIFEGrant was born in the diocese of Moray , a member of the Grant family of Blairfind in Glenlivat . He entered the Scotch College at Rome in 1726 and returned to Scotland
Scotland
as a priest in 1735. He was sent to the mission at Glengarry . There he remained till 1737, when, after the murder of the Roman agent Stuart, he was appointed to fill that office. He became acquainted with British travellers who went to Rome
Rome
, and rendered them many services. For a long period hardly any British subject of distinction visited Rome
Rome
without being provided with letters of introduction to the Abbé Grant
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Giovanni Battista Piranesi
GIOVANNI BATTISTA (also GIAMBATTISTA) PIRANESI (Italian pronunciation: ; 4 October 1720 – 9 November 1778) was an Italian artist famous for his etchings of Rome
Rome
and of fictitious and atmospheric "prisons" (Le Carceri d'Invenzione). CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 The Views (Vedute) * 3 The Prisons (Carceri) * 4 Archaeologist * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links BIOGRAPHYPiranesi was born in Mogliano Veneto , near Treviso
Treviso
, then part of the Republic of Venice
Venice
. His father was a stonemason. His brother Andrea introduced him to Latin and the ancient civilization, and later he was apprenticed under his uncle, Matteo Lucchesi , who was a leading architect in Magistrato delle Acque, the state organization responsible for engineering and restoring historical buildings
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Accademia Di San Luca
The ACCADEMIA DI SAN LUCA, (the "Academy of Saint Luke") was founded in 1577 as an association of artists in Rome (under the directorship of Federico Zuccari from 1593 ), with the purpose of elevating the work of "artists", which included painters, sculptors and architects, above that of mere craftsmen. Other founders included Girolamo Muziano and Pietro Olivieri . The Academy was named after Saint Luke the evangelist who, legend has it, made a portrait of the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
, and thus became the patron saint of painters\' guilds . From the late 16th century until it moved to its present location at the Palazzo Carpegna, it was based in an urban block by the Roman Forum and although these buildings no longer survive, the Academy church of Santi Luca e Martina , does. Designed by the Baroque architect, Pietro da Cortona
Pietro da Cortona
, its main facade overlooks the Forum
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Naples
NAPLES (/ˈneɪpəlz/ ; Italian : Napoli ( listen ), Neapolitan : Napule or ; Latin
Latin
: Neapolis; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Νεάπολις, meaning "new city") is the capital of the Italian region Campania
Campania
and the third-largest municipality in Italy
Italy
, after Rome
Rome
and Milan
Milan
. In 2015, around 975,260 people lived within the city's administrative limits. The Metropolitan City of Naples had a population of 3,115,320. Naples
Naples
is the 9th-most populous urban area in the European Union
European Union
with a population of between 3 million and 3.7 million. About 4.4 million people live in the Naples metropolitan area , one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea

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David Garrick
DAVID GARRICK (19 February 1717 – 20 January 1779) was an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century, and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson . He appeared in a number of amateur theatricals, and with his appearance in the title role of Shakespeare
Shakespeare
's Richard III , audiences and managers began to take notice. Impressed by his portrayals of Richard III and a number of other roles, Charles Fleetwood engaged Garrick for a season at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane . He remained with the Drury Lane company for the next five years and purchased a share of the theatre with James Lacy . This purchase inaugurated 29 years of Garrick's management of the Drury Lane, during which time it rose to prominence as one of the leading theatres in Europe
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Theatre Royal, Bath
THE THEATRE ROYAL in Bath , England, was built in 1805. A Grade II* listed building , it has been described by the Theatres Trust as "One of the most important surviving examples of Georgian theatre architecture". It has a capacity for an audience of around 900. The Theatre Royal was built to replace the Old Orchard Street Theatre , funded by a Tontine and elaborately decorated. The architect was George Dance the Younger , with John Palmer carrying out much of the work. It opened with a performance of Shakespeare 's Richard III and hosted performances by many leading actors of the time including Dorothea Jordan , William Macready
William Macready
and Edmund Kean . A major fire in 1862 destroyed the interior of the building and was quickly followed by a rebuilding programme by Charles J. Phipps
Charles J

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Bath, Somerset
BATH (/ˈbɑːθ/ or /ˈbæθ/ ) is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Somerset
Somerset
, England, known for its Roman-built baths. In 2011, the population was 88,859. Bath is in the valley of the River Avon , 97 miles (156 km) west of London
London
and 11 miles (18 km) south-east of Bristol
Bristol
. The city became a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1987. The city became a spa with the Latin
Latin
name Aquæ Sulis ("the waters of Sulis") c. AD 60 when the Romans built baths and a temple in the valley of the River Avon, although hot springs were known even before then. Bath Abbey was founded in the 7th century and became a religious centre; the building was rebuilt in the 12th and 16th centuries
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