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George Călinescu
George Călinescu
George Călinescu
(Romanian: [ˈd͡ʒe̯ord͡ʒe kəliˈnesku]; 19 June 1899, Iași – 12 March 1965, Otopeni) was a Romanian literary critic, historian, novelist, academician and journalist, and a writer of classicist and humanist tendencies
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National Library Of The Czech Republic
6,919,075 total items[1] 21,204 manuscripts[1] c. 4,200 incunabula[2]Other informationDirector Martin KocandaWebsite www.nkp.czThe National Library of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
(Czech: Národní knihovna České republiky) is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture. The library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum
Clementinum
building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař.[3] The National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers
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People's Republic Of China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Contemporanul
Contemporanul
Contemporanul
(The Contemporary) is a Romanian literary magazine published in Iaşi, Romania
Romania
from 1881 to 1891
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Communist Party Of Romania
The Romanian Communist Party
Romanian Communist Party
(Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania. Successor to the pro-Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to communist revolution and the disestablishment of Greater Romania. The PCR was a minor and illegal grouping for much of the interwar period, and submitted to direct Comintern
Comintern
control. During the 1930s, most of its activists were imprisoned or took refuge in the Soviet Union, which led to the creation of separate and competing factions until the 1950s. The Communist Party emerged as a powerful actor on the Romanian political scene in August 1944, when it became involved in the royal coup that toppled the pro-Nazi government of Ion Antonescu
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Folklore
Folklore
Folklore
is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group. These include oral traditions such as tales, proverbs and jokes. They include material culture, ranging from traditional building styles to handmade toys common to the group. Folklore
Folklore
also includes customary lore, the forms and rituals of celebrations such as Christmas
Christmas
and weddings, folk dances and initiation rites. Each one of these, either singly or in combination, is considered a folklore artifact. Just as essential as the form, folklore also encompasses the transmission of these artifacts from one region to another or from one generation to the next
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Spanish Literature
Spanish literature
Spanish literature
generally refers to literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written in the Spanish language
Spanish language
within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain. Its development coincides and frequently intersects with that of other literary traditions from regions within the same territory, particularly Catalan literature, Galician intersects as well with Latin, Jewish, and Arabic literary traditions of the Iberian peninsula
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Nicolae Filimon
Nicolae Filimon (Romanian pronunciation: [nikoˈla.e filiˈmon]; 6 September 1819 – 19 March 1865) was a Wallachian Romanian novelist and short-story writer, remembered as the author of the first Realist novel in Romanian literature, Ciocoii vechi şi noi ("The Old and the New Parvenus"), which was centered on the self-seeking figure Dinu Păturică (who drew comparisons with Stendhal's Julien Sorel). He was also a noted travel writer, folklorist, musician, and the first musical critic in his country. Biography[edit] Born in Bucharest
Bucharest
as the son of an Eastern Orthodox parish priest of the Enei Church, Filimon was a cantor and an autodidact. According to Ion Ghica's Letters, he was briefly employed by theater companies after his father's death in 1830, singing in a theater choir and playing the flute. In 1852, he was chosen administrator of the Enei Church, remaining in office until his death
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Grigore Alexandrescu
Grigore Alexandrescu (Romanian pronunciation: [ɡriˈɡore aleksanˈdresku]; 22 February 1810, Târgovişte – 25 November 1885 in Bucharest) was a nineteenth-century Romanian poet and translator noted for his fables with political undertones. Of a noble family, he participated in secret revolutionary societies. In his fables his political and social views were often reflected satirically and ironically often on the uneasiness of living under the Russian protectorate. His works such as Tombs at Drăgăşani were particularly nationalist and patriotic in nature.[1] He founded a periodical, Albina Româneascǎ
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Honoré De Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
(/ˈbɔːlzæk, ˈbæl-/;[2] French: [ɔ.nɔ.ʁe d(ə) bal.zak], born Honoré Balzac,[1] 20 May 1799 – 18 August 1850) was a French novelist and playwright. The novel sequence La Comédie humaine, which presents a panorama of post-Napoleonic French life, is generally viewed as his magnum opus. Owing to his keen observation of detail and unfiltered representation of society, Balzac is regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature.[3] He is renowned for his multi-faceted characters; even his lesser characters are complex, morally ambiguous and fully human. Inanimate objects are imbued with character as well; the city of Paris, a backdrop for much of his writing, takes on many human qualities
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Polemic
A polemic (/pəˈlɛmɪk/) is contentious rhetoric that is intended to support a specific position by aggressive claims and undermining of the opposing position. Polemics are mostly seen in arguments about controversial topics. The practice of such argumentation is called polemics. A person who often writes polemics, or who speaks polemically, is called a polemicist.[1] The word is derived from Greek πολεμικός (polemikos), meaning 'warlike, hostile',[1][2] from πόλεμος (polemos), meaning 'war'.[3] Polemics often concern issues in religion or politics. A polemic style of writing was common in Ancient Greece, as in the writings of the historian Polybius. Polemic again became common in medieval and early modern times
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Destalinization
De-Stalinization
De-Stalinization
(Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev
to power.[1] The reforms consisted of changing or removing key institutions that helped Stalin hold power: the cult of personality that surrounded him, the Stalinist political system, and the Gulag
Gulag
labour-camp system, all of which had been created and dominated by him
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Camil Petrescu
Camil Petrescu (Romanian pronunciation: [kaˈmil peˈtresku]; 22 April 1894 – 14 May 1957; born and died in Bucharest) was a Romanian playwright, novelist, philosopher and poet. He marked the end of the traditional novel era and laid the foundation of the modern novel era.Contents1 Life 2 Works 3 Filmography 4 ReferencesLife[edit] Camil Petrescu lost both his parents early in life and was raised by a relative (or a nanny from the Moşilor suburb; the sources remain quite unclear on this). Petrescu went to primary school at Obor, and to high school at Saint Sava National College, where he wrote his very first poem. Being very poor, he studied assiduously, worked to support himself, and relatively late—at the age of 29—he began his studies in philosophy at the University of Bucharest
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Socialist Realist
Socialist realism
Socialist realism
is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II. [1] Socialist realism
Socialist realism
is characterized by the glorified depiction of communist values, such as the emancipation of the proletariat, by means of realistic imagery.[2] Although related, it should not be confused with social realism, a type of art that realistically depicts subjects of social concern.[3] Socialist realism
Socialist realism
was the predominant form of approved art in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from its development in the early 1920s to its eventual fall from official status beginning in the late 1960s until the breakup of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991
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Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis
is a condition in which the liver does not function properly due to long-term damage.[1] This damage is characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue by scar tissue.[1] Typically, the disease develops slowly over months or years.[1] Early on, there are often no symptoms.[1] As the disease worsens, a person may become tired, weak, itchy, have swelling in the lower legs, develop yellow skin, bruise easily, have fluid build up in the abdomen, or develop spider-like blood vessels on the skin.[1] The fluid build-up in the abdomen may become spontaneously infected.[1] Other complicatio
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