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Geology Of Massachusetts
The geology of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
is the result of a process that began over a billion years ago. Massachusetts
Massachusetts
currently lies at an edge of a continent, and in the geological past has been the location of many continental collisions and collisions with other microcontinents and volcanic arcs, with their resulting mountain-building events. As a result, the state rock structure is squeezed together
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Glacial Lake
A glacial lake is a lake with origins in a melted glacier. They are formed when a glacier erodes the land, and then melts, filling the hole or space that it has created. Near the end of the last glacial period, roughly 10,000 years ago, glaciers began to retreat.[1] A retreating glacier often left behind large deposits of ice in hollows between drumlins or hills. As the ice age ended, these melted to create lakes. This is apparent in the Lake
Lake
District in Northwestern England
England
where post-glacial sediments are normally between 4 and 6 metres deep.[1] These lakes are often surrounded by drumlins, along with other evidence of the glacier such as moraines, eskers and erosional features such as striations and chatter marks. The scouring action of the glaciers pulverizes minerals in the rock over which the glacier passes
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Glacial Erratic
A glacial erratic is a piece of rock that differs from the size and type of rock native to the area in which it rests. "Erratics" take their name from the Latin word errare (to wander), and are carried by glacial ice, often over distances of hundreds of kilometres. Erratics can range in size from pebbles to large boulders such as Big Rock (15,000 tonnes or 17,000 short tons) in Alberta. Geologists identify erratics by studying the rocks surrounding the position of the erratic and the composition of the erratic itself. Erratics are significant because:They can be transported by glaciers, and they are thereby one of a series of indicators which mark the path of prehistoric glacier movement. Their lithographic origin can be traced to the parent bedrock, allowing for confirmation of the ice flow route. They can be transported by ice rafting
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Mount Wachusett
Mount Wachusett
Mount Wachusett
is a mountain in Massachusetts. It straddles towns of Princeton and Westminster, in Worcester County. It is the highest point in Massachusetts
Massachusetts
east of the Connecticut River. The mountain is named after a Native American term meaning "near the mountain" or "mountain place". The mountain is a popular hiking and skiing destination (see 'Wachusett Mountain Ski Area"). An automobile road, open spring to fall, ascends to the summit. Views from the top of Mount Wachusett
Mount Wachusett
include Mount Monadnock
Monadnock
to the north, Mount Greylock to the west, southern Vermont
Vermont
to the northwest, and Boston
Boston
to the east. The mountain is traversed by the 92 mi (148 km) Midstate Trail
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Trilobite
Trilobites ( /ˈtraɪləˌbaɪt, ˈtrɪ-, -loʊ-/;[4][5] meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita. Trilobites form one of the earliest known groups of arthropods. The first appearance of trilobites in the fossil record defines the base of the Atdabanian stage of the Early Cambrian
Cambrian
period (521 million years ago), and they flourished throughout the lower Paleozoic
Paleozoic
era before beginning a drawn-out decline to extinction when, during the Devonian, all trilobite orders except the Proetids died out. Trilobites disappeared in the mass extinction at the end of the Permian
Permian
about 252 million years ago
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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Precambrian
The Precambrian
Precambrian
(or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria, the Latinised name for Wales, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Ordovician
The Ordovician
Ordovician
( /ɔːrdəˈvɪʃən/) is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era
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South Pole
Coordinates: 90°S 180°E / 90°S 180°E / -90; 180The Geographic South Pole. (The flag used on the flagpole is interchangeable.)Image taken by NASA
NASA
showing Antarctica
Antarctica
and the South Pole
South Pole
in 2005.South Geographic Pole South Magnetic Pole
South Magnetic Pole
(2007) South Geomagnetic Pole
South Geomagnetic Pole
(2005) South Pole
South Pole
of InaccessibilityThe South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole
South Pole
or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface
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Cambrian
The Cambrian
Cambrian
Period ( /ˈkæmbriən/ or /ˈkeɪmbriən/) was the first geological period of the Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Era, of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon.[6] The Cambrian
Cambrian
lasted 55.6 million years from the end of the preceding Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period 541 million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period 485.4 mya.[7] Its subdivisions, and its base, are somewhat in flux
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Silurian
The Silurian
Silurian
is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician
Ordovician
Period, at 443.8 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian
Devonian
Period, 419.2 Mya.[8] As with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian
Silurian
is set at a series of major Ordovician–Silurian extinction events
Ordovician–Silurian extinction events
when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian
Silurian
was the diversification of jawed and bony fish
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Plymouth Rock
Plymouth Rock
Plymouth Rock
is the traditional site of disembarkation of William Bradford and the Mayflower
Mayflower
Pilgrims who founded Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
in 1620. The Pilgrims did not refer to Plymouth Rock
Plymouth Rock
in any of their writings; the first known written reference to the rock dates to 1715 when it was described in the town boundary records as "a great rock."[2] The first documented claim that Plymouth Rock
Plymouth Rock
was the landing place of the Pilgrims was made by Elder Thomas Faunce in 1741, 121 years after the Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth.[3] From that time to the present, Plymouth Rock
Plymouth Rock
has occupied a prominent spot in American tradition and has been interpreted by later generations as a symbol of both the virtues and the flaws of the first English people who colonized New England
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Illinoian (stage)
The Illinoian Stage is the name used by Quaternary
Quaternary
geologists in North America to designate the period c.191,000 to c.130,000 years ago, during the middle Pleistocene, when sediments comprising the Illinoian Glacial
Glacial
Lobe were deposited. It precedes the Sangamonian stage and follows the Pre-Illinoian Stage in North America. The Illinoian Stage is defined as the period of geologic time during which the glacial tills and outwash, which comprise the bulk of the Glasford
Glasford
Formation, accumulated to create the Illinoian Glacial
Glacial
Lobe.[1]Contents1 Definition1.1 Substages2 Correlation 3 Extent 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksDefinition[edit] At its type exposure in Peoria County, Illinois, the Illinoian deposits consist of three till members of the Glasford
Glasford
Formation
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Shelburne Falls
87002548 [1]Added to NRHP January 28, 1988Shelburne Falls is a historic village in the towns of Shelburne and Buckland in Franklin County, Massachusetts, United States. The village is a census-designated place (CDP) with a population of 1,731 at the 2010 census.[2] It is part of the Springfield, Massachusetts, Metropolitan Statistical Area. Notable features include the Bridge of Flowers, a former trolley bridge over the Deerfield River
Deerfield River
that is now maintained by the Shelburne Falls Women's Club as a floral display from April through October, the Shelburne Falls Trolley Museum; and the glacial potholes of the Deerfield River. Bill and Camille Cosby
Camille Cosby
are well known residents of the area, though they keep a relatively low profile
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Laurentide Ice Sheet
The Laurentide Ice Sheet
Laurentide Ice Sheet
was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada
Canada
and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary
Quaternary
glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.[1] The last advance covered most of northern North America between c. 95,000 and c. 20,000 years before the present day, and among other geomorphological effects, gouged out the five Great Lakes and the hosts of smaller lakes of the Canadian shield
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Wisconsinan Glaciation
The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordillera; the Innuitian ice sheet, which extended across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Greenland ice sheet; and the massive Laurentide ice sheet,[1] which covered the high latitudes of central and eastern North America. This advance was synchronous with global glaciation during the last glacial period, including the North American alpine glacier advance, known as the Pinedale glaciation. The Wisconsin glaciation
Wisconsin glaciation
extended from approximately 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamon interglacial (known globally as the Eemian
Eemian
stage) and the current interglacial, the Holocene
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